The Risks Digest

The RISKS Digest

Forum on Risks to the Public in Computers and Related Systems

ACM Committee on Computers and Public Policy, Peter G. Neumann, moderator

Volume 10 Issue 28

Friday 31 August 1990


o Re: Lawsuit over specification error
Pete Mellor
Martyn Thomas
o Computer Unreliability and Social Vulnerability: synopsis
Pete Mellor
o Computer Unreliability and Social Vulnerability: critique
Pete Mellor
o Copyright Policy
Daniel B Dobkin
o Re: Discover Card
Brian M. Clapper
Gordon Keegan
o Info on RISKS (comp.risks)

Re: Lawsuit over specification error

Pete Mellor <>
Fri, 31 Aug 90 10:14:37 PDT
Martyn Thomas in RISKS-10.27 writes:

> ... on this evidence, a simulator used for
> crew training in emergency procedures is *itself* a safety-critical system.

Safety-*related*, I would say, but not safety-*critical*. The usual definition
of safety-critical is that a system failure results in catastrophe. The argument
would be over how directly the catastrophe results from the failure. In this
case, the 'accident chain' is fairly tenuous.

> (Presumably it should therefore require certification in the same way as an
> in-flight system of equivalent criticality.

I agree that it requires certification, even though it is not safety-critical
in the strict sense. I do not think it should require to be certified to a
10~-9 maximum probability of failure per hour, as airborne safety-critical
systems are, however. (This is unrealistic where software is concerned anyway.)
Also 'failure' means different things in the two cases. The airborne system
fails when it malfunctions and the aircraft crashes. On the simulator, one
would often simulate such a 'failure' and the resulting crash, to see if the
pilot could save the aircraft in those circumstances. The simulator fails
when it does not faithfully mimic the behaviour of the real aircraft.

> Does anyone know the certification requirements for simulators?)

No, but I am certain they are not covered by RTCA/DO-178A, for example, which
applies purely to software in airborne systems. Whether there is a section of
the more general Federal Aviation Regulations which applies to ground-based
ancillary systems I am not sure, but I suspect there is nothing to cover
simulators, since they are not directly involved in controlling flight.

If this is the case, then the user of a simulator is at the mercy of the
developer's internal quality assurance procedures.

Peter Mellor, Centre for Software Reliability, City University, Northampton
Sq.,London EC1V 0HB +44(0)71-253-4399 Ext. 4162/3/1 (JANET)

Re: Lawsuit over specification error

Martyn Thomas <>
Fri, 31 Aug 90 11:47:24 BST
Peter Mellor replies to my comment in RISKS (my original lines are ">" his
are ":" ...

: > ... on this evidence, a simulator used for
: > crew training in emergency procedures is *itself* a safety-critical system.
: Safety-*related*, I would say, but not safety-*critical*. The usual definition
: of safety-critical is that a system failure results in catastrophe. The
: argument would be over how directly the catastrophe results from the failure.
: In this case, the 'accident chain' is fairly tenuous.

I disagree (my comments are on the *principle*; I am not advising the
lawyers in this particular case!)

Firstly, if crew are trained to react in a way which is likely to be fatal
in an emergency, then the training *causes* the fatality in that emergency.
This is a direct link. You cannot expect crew to do better than their
training under the stress of an emergency.

Secondly, there is a class of in-flight systems which "increase crew
workload", with defined failure-rate requirements. The training simulator
would seem directly equivalent to these systems, in that crew might be
expected to be able to overcome faulty training by cross-checking with other
training and basic airmanship - but the workload could be significantly
higher, and you would not expect crew to have time to react in this way in
an emergency.
: > (Presumably it should therefore require certification in the same way as an
: > in-flight system of equivalent criticality.
Not 10^-9, but some lower figure, as defined in DO-178a.

Martyn Thomas, Praxis plc, 20 Manvers Street, Bath BA1 1PX UK.
Tel:    +44-225-444700.   Email:

Re^3: Lawsuit over specification error

Pete Mellor <>
Fri, 31 Aug 90 14:52:19 PDT
I don't think that Martyn and I have a serious disagreement here.

In particular, I agree that:

> You cannot expect crew to do better than their
> training under the stress of an emergency.

and therefore I *basically* agree with Martyn when he says:

>:> (Presumably it should therefore require certification in the same way as an
>:> in-flight system of equivalent criticality.
>            ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> Not 10^-9, but some lower figure, as defined in DO-178a.
                                    ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^(see below)


As I stated previously, we are certifying different functions. With a
safety-critical airborne system, we are certifying that it has a certain
maximum probability of crashing the aircraft. With a simulator, we are
certifying that it has a certain maximum probability of not behaving as
the real aircraft behaves.

It would be unrealistic and unreasonable to demand that a simulator be
certified to the same high reliability (1 - 10^-9) as a critical airborne

It is in any case impossible to certify any system containing software to a
reliability of (1 - 10^-9), even if it *is* a critical airborne system.

RTCA/DO-178A ('Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment
Certification') does *not* define any reliability figures. It is merely a
set of guidelines defining quality assurance practices for software.
Regulatory approval depends upon the developer supplying certain documents
(e.g., software test plan, procedures and results) to show that the guidelines
have been followed.

I will return to this last point at length in the near future. Watch this

Peter Mellor, Centre for Software Reliability, City University, Northampton
Sq.,London EC1V 0HB +44(0)71-253-4399 Ext. 4162/3/1 (JANET)

Computer Unreliability and Social Vulnerability: synopsis

Pete Mellor <>
Fri, 31 Aug 90 12:44:12 PDT
Synopsis of: Forester, T., & Morrison, P. Computer Unreliability and
Social Vulnerability, Futures, June 1990, pages 462-474.

Abstract (quoted):

Many have argued that industrial societies are becoming more
technology-dependent and are thus more vulnerable to technology failures.
Despite the pervasiveness of computer technology, little is known about computer
failures, except perhaps that they are all too common. This article analyses
the sources of computer unreliability and reviews the extent and cost of
unreliable computers. Unlike previous writers, the authors argue that digital
computers are inherently unreliable for two reasons: first, they are prone to
total rather than partial failure; and second, their enormous complexity
means that they can never be thoroughly tested before use. The authors then
describe various institutional attempts to improve reliability and possible
solutions proposed by computer scientists, but they conclude that as yet
none is adequate. Accordingly, they recommend that computers should not be
used in life-critical applications.

Synopsis of paper:

The paper is introduced by a series of examples of disasters, some to do with
communications kit and some with computers, covering external causes and
internal system failures, and accidental and malicious actions, e.g. sabotage
of telephone cables in Sydney in Nov.'87, fire in Setagaya telephone office
(Japan) in Nov.'84, overwriting of Exxon's files relating to the Alaskan oil
spill in July '89.

The vulnerability of society to such failures is further underlined by a
discussion of 'The problem of computer unreliability: sources extent and cost'.
System failures can be caused by external factors (flood, fire, etc.), and
human error or misuse, but many more are due to computer malfunction, which
can be classified as hardware or software failure. Hardware failures are
usually due to failures of computer chips, e.g. the SAC false alert in June '80.
However most computer malfunctions are due to software failure. Many examples
are given of accidents, loss and disruption due to software failure in
military, space, civilian air traffic control, medicine, and finance, and of
cost overrun during software development. Famous examples cited are the loss
of Mariner 18 and the Bank of New York disaster in Nov.'85. Reports from
Price Waterhouse and Logica are mentioned as stating that software failure
costs UK industry US$900 million a year. Finally the case of Julie Engle, who
died after an overdose of painkiller was prescribed by an automated dispensing
machine, is reported as an example of how a fairly simple AI system can fail
with disastrous consequences, and the authors ask what could happen with the
really complex systems now envisaged.

In discussing 'Why computers are so unreliable', the authors complain that
previous studies have failed to highlight hardware or software failure as a
source of system malfunction. Their contention is that computers are inherently
unreliable because they are prone to catastrophic failure, and they are too
complex to be tested thoroughly. The Therac-25 and Blackhawk helicopter
accidents are given as examples of catastrophic failure. Digital computers are
discrete state devices, with billions of possible internal states, each of
which is a potential error point. Each internal state depends on the previous
one, and if any execution of an internal state results in an 'incorrect' state,
sudden erratic behaviour or total failure will result. In contrast, although
analogue devices have infinitely many states, most of their behaviour is
*continuous*, so that there are few situations in which they will jump from
working perfectly to failing totally. Furthermore, the enormous number of
possible internal states in a discrete computer system means that it is
impossible to know or predict, and hence impossible to test, them all.
Attempts at repair of computer systems often introduce more errors.  Bug-free
programs cannot be guaranteed, as illustrated by lack of software warranties,
or explicit disclaimers.

'What are computer scientists doing about it?': Computer system reliability
has traditionally been assessed by estimating the probability that hardware or
software will fail based on statistics of failures observed over operating time.
This confirms that programming is still a 'black art', a creative but hit and
miss activity undertaken in an unregulated fashion by people of whom no
minimum standard of education is required. This is likely to change following
the publication of the draft defence standard 00-55 by the MoD in the UK in
May 1989. The DoD in the US are not doing anything similar, though the
International Civil Aviation Organisation is planning to go to formal methods.
The improvement of software has until now depended upon 'software engineering'
under four headings:

a) structured programming and associated HOLs,
b) programming environments providing version and modification control,
c) program verification and derivation (proof of correctness of code and
   intermediate specifications respectively), and
d) human management.

a) and b) will not give the order of magnitude improvement required.
c) can only be applied to small programs, and is better described as 'proof of
relative consistency' rather than 'proof of correctness', since it takes no
account of situations not foreseen in the specification.

Conclusion (quoted):

We are therefore forced to conclude that the construction of software is a
complex and difficult process and that existing techniques of software
engineering do not as yet provide software of assured quality and reliability.
In the case of large, complex systems to which we entrust major social
responsibilities and sometimes awesome energies, this is extremely worrying.
Nor is the situation likely to improve in the short term: computer
unreliability will remain a major source of social vulnerability for some time
to come.  Accordingly, we recommend that computers should not be entrusted with
life-critical applications now, and should be only if reliability improves
dramatically in the future.

Given the evidence presented here, several ethical issues also emerge for
people in the computer industry. For example, when programmers and software
engineers are asked to build systems which have life-critical applications,
should they be more honest about the dangers and limitations? Are computer
professionals under an obligation if a system fails: for example, if a patient
dies on an operating table because of faulty software, is the programmer guilty
of manslaughter, or malpractice, or neither? What is the ethical status of
existing warranties and disclaimers? How is it that the computer industry
almost alone is able to sell products which cannot be guaranteed against

These are the kinds of questions that should be raised with governments,
computer purchasers and the wider public as a matter of urgency, because
computer vendors and the software industry themselves are most unlikely to
publicize the serious shortcomings of their products.

Peter Mellor, Centre for Software Reliability, City University, Northampton
Sq.,London EC1V 0HB +44(0)71-253-4399 Ext. 4162/3/1 (JANET)

Computer Unreliability and Social Vulnerability: critique

Pete Mellor <>
Fri, 31 Aug 90 21:03:31 PDT
Ref.: Forester, T., & Morrison, P.: "Computer Unreliability and
      Social Vulnerability", Futures, June 1990, pages 462-474.

The original item (RISKS-10.24), taken from the August 1990 _World_Press_Review,
was a very short and over-simplified summary of this paper, and included one
gross inaccuracy that the authors were not guilty of (22 fatal Blackhawk
helicopter crashes, instead of the true figure of 5 crashes resulting in 22
deaths), as Perry Morrison himself pointed out in RISKS-10.26.

In my previous mailing, I provided what I hope is a fair synopsis of this paper,
accurately representing the views of the authors, and without allowing my own
opinions to intrude. (I quoted the abstract and conclusions in full.)

The following is my own reaction to the paper:-

The authors are basically on the side of the angels, and I agree with a lot of
what they say. (They also cite one of my own articles, so appealing to my
vanity and making it even more difficult for me to be critical! :-) However,
bearing this in mind, I would like to raise some criticisms.

An enormous number of CAD/CAM incidents (Computer Aided Disaster/Computer
Assisted Mayhem :-) are retold. Some of these are not directly relevant to the
authors' main point, which is that the activation of faults, unintentionally
introduced into their design, is now one of the most important reasons for the
failure of complex hardware/software systems (a point with which I entirely
agree). They include deliberate sabotage of hardware, malicious alteration of
data, accidents (e.g., fire) external to the system, and physical hardware
component failure (e.g., broken wires). In considering the social impact of the
failure of complex systems, such causes must not be ignored, but the authors
confuse the issue by not distinguishing these events clearly from failures due
purely to design faults.

The incidents could have been more clearly described by classifying them
according to:

 - application area (military, banking, etc.),
 - cause (code fault, bad specification, hardware failure, interference, etc.),
 - effect (system crash, data corruption, spurious signal, etc.), and
 - cost ($5 million, 22 lives, etc.).

The authors do not make it clear initially which of two different meanings of
'catastrophic' they intend:

 a) sudden and unpredictable, 'anything can happen', and
 b) having appalling consequences.

The first is a classification of the effect (which I prefer to call a 'wild
failure' to avoid confusion), and the second is a measure of the cost. For
example, when arguing that computers are inherently unreliable because they are
prone to 'catastrophic failure', they quote the Blackhawk example. The cause of
this series of accidents was eventually traced to electromagnetic interference,
as the authors state. While it is probably true that only a *digital*
fly-by-wire system would exhibit a wild mode of failure in response to EMI, it
is not until half-way down the next page, where the authors point out that
digital systems have far more discontinuities than analogue systems, that it
becomes clear that they are using 'catastrophic' in sense a), and not in sense

The authors are right to claim that computer systems are too complex to be
tested thoroughly, if by this they mean 'exhaustively'. It is apparent from
their example of a system monitoring 100 binary signals that they do mean this.
The argument, and the arithmetic supporting it, are unconvincing, however. It
is not generally true that a different path through a program will be executed
for every possible combination of inputs, therefore the derivation of 1.27 x
10^34 internal states (2^100 or 1.27 x 10^30 input combinations, multiplied by
an arbitrarily assumed 10^4 possible paths) is not valid. On the other hand,
knowing that execution is along a given path is insufficient.  *Where* one is
on the path would also affect the internal state. There may be *more* than 1.27
x 10^34 internal states! The problem is that 'internal state' is not defined.

Exhaustive testing in this sense is well known to be impossible. Even in
modestly complex systems one can only test a representative sample of inputs.
Provided the selected sample is realistic, one can, however obtain a reasonable
degree of confidence that a reliability target has been reached, but *only if
the target is not too high*.

Later in this argument, there is further confusion between two types of

  i) changes to a system to simulate exception conditions during testing, and
 ii) changes to a system to correct faults found in test or operation.

The authors slip from i) to ii) without, apparently, being aware of it. As a
result, there is a non-sequitur, although the final points, that attempts to
remove faults have a high probability of introducing other faults, and that
guaranteed bug-free programs are impossible, are quite correct.

In the section on 'What are computer scientists doing about it?' there is
another non-sequitur (quoted text prefixed by '>'):

> Like many computer scientists, he [Peter Mellor] advocates the application
> of statistical principles to software quality, so that, for example, it may
> be more acceptable to have many infrequent bugs rather than a small number
> of very frequent ones.

This point was originally made by Bev Littlewood. I still advocate it, but it
needs clarifying. We value a system for the function it performs, and
therefore we are interested in its reliability, defined as: the probability
that it will not fail (i.e. deviate from its required function) for a given
period of operation under given conditions. (The authors quote this definition,
but omit the 'not' - obviously a typo! :-) The program with many bugs, each of
which causes failure infrequently, may be much less likely to fail than one with
few bugs, each of which causes failure frequently. In that case it will be more
acceptable, since it is more reliable. The only 'principle' involved here is
that reliability is an important attribute of software quality, which the
authors also affirm. They continue:

> This merely confirms the view that programming is a 'black art' rather than
> a rigorous science - a highly creative endeavour which is also hit and miss.

Does it? Why?? I see no logical connection here at all. "We cannot control what
we cannot measure" [de Marco]. If we wish to control software development to
achieve more reliable systems, we must begin by being able to measure
reliability. To make such measurements using sound statistical techniques on
well-defined data moves programming away from being a 'black art' and towards
being an engineering discipline.

If the authors are pointing out that this kind of 'black-box' statistical
reliability assessment gives no guidance before development as to what effect
particular design methods will have on reliability, I agree, but we must be
able to measure first, in order to build up a body of experience regarding
their effect.

Anyway, end of whinge. I agree with much of what the authors say, particularly
regarding the inability of current methods to deliver ultra-reliable software.
Ultra-reliability, of the order 1 - 10^-9, is also impossible to assess. (If
the failure rate is high enough to be measured, then it is too high!) For many
applications, however, modest reliability is sufficient, and this can be both
achieved and measured right now. The moot point is whether the authors' main
conclusion is too strong: that computers should not be used where life is at

At which point, I throw the motion open for debate.

Peter Mellor, Centre for Software Reliability, City University, Northampton Sq.,
London EC1V 0HB +44(0)71-253-4399 Ext. 4162/3/1 (JANET)

Copyright Policy (reply to Gene Spafford)

Daniel B Dobkin <>
Fri, 31 Aug 90 14:28:19 EDT
[I acknowledge this is not the best forum for this, but there is a
 RISK, far more evident on other newsgroups, when people make sweeping
 statements about the law based on popular misconceptions.  There is
 another RISK inherent when judges have to make decisions on technical
 matters without understanding the technology -- and when those
 decisions are based on arguments made by lawyers who don't understand
 the technology, either.]

First, the disclaimer: I'm not a lawyer, either, but as a full-time
programmer and part-time law student (sorry), I felt compelled to
respond to Gene Spafford when he wrote,

      The purpose of copyright is to protect the commercial interest of the
      copyright holder (author or publisher).

Don't take what I say as legal advice, either; it's an explanation of
the policy underpinnings of copyright, as I understand them:

The purpose of copyright is NOT to protect the commercial interest of
the copyright holder, author, publisher, artist, or anything else.
Its sole purpose is to promote innovation and creativity; granting the
author/artist a limited monopoly interest (exclusive rights for some
definite period), it is reasoned, will encourage people to be creative
and society will reap the benefits.

To a lot of people this sounds like the sort of semantic quibbling (1)
which doesn't mean much; and (2) for which lawyers typically
overcharge.  (It sounds that way to me at times.)  Please think about
it for a moment: there is really a world of difference between the
two.  The one can encourage lawsuits based on, say, "software look and
feel", while the other has great potential to limit them.

\dbd, Stern School of Business, New York University

Re: Discover Card

Brian M. Clapper <clapper@NADC.NADC.NAVY.MIL>
Fri, 31 Aug 90 09:19:26 -0400
Will Martin points out that the card does come with a PIN.  He is correct; I
found that out after I sent my message.  I apologize for the error.  However,
one does not need a PIN to access the on-line service I previously described.

Also Mr. Martin mentions that his card has no 800 number on the back.  Quite
possible.  My card is brand new.  The number I dialed was 1-800-347-2683.
Discover's mnemonic for this same number is 1-800-DISCOVER.  That number (in
both incarnations) is imprinted on the back of my card, along with the legend

Brian Clapper,

P.S. My apologies for any problems our mailers caused.  We're slowly switching
to a new set-up, and we sometimes have trouble with sendmail's oh-so-friendly
address rewriting rules.
                                                         [Join the Club.  PGN]

Re: Discover card...

Gordon Keegan &145GMK@UTARLG.UTARL.EDU>
Fri, 31 Aug 90 10:44 CDT
        Some time ago I received notification from Discover that
        there was now an 800 number available with automated
        account information available.  It's 1-800-DISCOVER
        (800-347-2683).  The computer on the other end has you
        key in your account number followed by the # key.
        No PIN is required for this.  You only need the PIN
        if you are getting a cash advance at an ATM.

        The 858-5588 number has been inactive for about a year now.

Gordon Keegan, U.Texas, Arlington c145gmk@utarlg.BITNET THEnet UTARLG::C145GMK
UUCP: ...!{ames,sun,texbell,uunet}!!c145gmk

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