The Risks Digest

The RISKS Digest

Forum on Risks to the Public in Computers and Related Systems

ACM Committee on Computers and Public Policy, Peter G. Neumann, moderator

Volume 12 Issue 53

Monday 21 October 1991

Contents

o Inappropriate ATM error codes
Sean Eric Fagan
o Blood Donor Cards
Robert E. Van Cleef
o RISKs of new E911 system
Paul Robichaux
o Unusual risks of frequent flying
Rob Aitken
o Review of THE GLASS COCKPIT
Robert Dorsett
o Yet another journalistic cock-up (cracker activity)
Simon E Spero
o Assurance of High-Integrity Software - Report
Rick Kuhn
o Video stores losing videos...
Chris A. Anderson
o Re: Blockbuster
Brian Boutel
Matt Crawford
Kevin Hughes
Patricia Shanahan
o Info on RISKS (comp.risks)

Inappropriate error codes

Sean Eric Fagan <sef@kithrup.com>
Sun, 20 Oct 91 22:22:17 PDT
After a longish day yesterday, I was on my way home, and decided to pick up
some stuff for both dinner and breakfast at Lucky's.  For those not
acquainted with it, Lucky's allows customers to use an ATM card to pay for
the purchases (and they pay for the transaction fee, which makes it
attractive to me).  This was at about 3:30AM or so.  After getting
everything I wanted, and standing at the register and shouting for someone
to come take my money, I tried to pay with my ATM.  Slid it through the
machine, entered my PIN, said I wanted $20 extra in cash, approved it, etc.

Wait.

Error code 60.  No approval.

I go, "Huh?!"  Cashier takes out a little card, and shows me where it says
"Error Code 60" is "incorrect PIN."  So I tried again, making sure I had the
right card, making sure I had the right PIN.  Same result.  I tried it with
a smaller amount.  Same thing.  Paid with my reserve cash, and proceeded to
drive down to a branch of my bank so I could make sure I hadn't gone broke.

Well, it turns out that it was the one hour a week when Bank of America
takes down their network for (I assume) routine maintainance.  Normally,
when this happens, and I'm at a bank ATM (my own or a different bank), it
says that it is unable to conduct the transaction, which is a different
message than an incorrect PIN entry.

If Lucky's had had a correct error code (ETIMEDOUT would do 8-)), I would
have driven home a bit slower, and not had the near-corronary when I passed
the cop...


Blood Donor Cards

Robert E. Van Cleef <vancleef@nas.nasa.gov>
Thu, 17 Oct 91 11:32:51 -0700
Last June I donated blood at a local blood drive. I was told that I would
receive my blood donor's card in the mail in a couple of weeks.

I just got off the phone with a representative of the local Red Cross
organization. A new computer system was installed last January, and the "card
printing" portion of the software "didn't work out".

I can expect to receive my card in two to three months....

Bob Van Cleef, NASA Ames Research Center    (415) 604-4366


RISKs of new E911 system

Paul Robichaux <robichau@freedom.msfc.nasa.gov>
Thu, 17 Oct 1991 13:00:34 GMT
[_The Huntsville Times_, Huntsville AL, 1991Oct15. My comments in braces.]

"Enhanced 911 put on hold until early '92"
[Julie T. Schultz, _Times_ Staff Writer]

  Enhanced 911 officials [how are they enhanced?] Monday announced yet another
delay in the operations of the new emergency communications system.

  Emergency Communications Board Chairman Richard Holloway said that the system
will be operational sometime in early 1992 rather than at the end of this month
or early November.

  The agencies that will use the system, Huntsville's police and fire
departments, the city's ambulance service, and the county Sheriff's Department
have requested a delay, Holloway said today. The agencies feel their
dispatchers and other workers need more training on the system, he said.

  [Concerns of this new system's impact on personnel, staffing levels,
   etc. deleted.]

  If agencies had to switch to the new system during the next few
weeks, [E911 Committee Chairman Philip] Arnold said workers would have
to run a "parallel operation to the computer-aided dispatch system."

  "Anytime you convert over to something new you continue the current
process for awhile and then compare them for glitches," he said. "We
would have to staff the old and new systems simultaneously if we
started" late this month or early November.

   Several months will give workers time to train on and test the
system at the same time, he said.


Despite the fact that Mr. Arnold appears to be aware of some of the
RISKs of abruptly switching over to a new system, the article seems to
say that Huntsville's E911 will abruptly replace the current system
*with no parallel system in operation at startup.*

The RISKs here should be evident to readers of the Digest.

-Paul Robichaux


Unusual risks of frequent flying

Rob Aitken <aitken@hpdtlra.ctgsc.hp.com>
Thu, 17 Oct 91 13:02:36 pdt
Recently, when I opened the monthly statement for a frequent flyer program to
which I belong, I discovered that someone else's statement had been stuffed
into the envelope with mine. I was thus able to see which flights this person
had taken that month. A potentially RISKier piece of information I was also
able to obtain, however, was the amount of her airline Mastercard bill, which
had been credited as miles to her account. I think the biggest risk of the
entire episode, though, comes from the sorting technique used to print the
mileage statements: In order to get discount mail rates, the airline presorts
the statements by 9 digit zip code. As a result, the person whose report I
received lives in my neighborhood.

While I can't speak for the person involved, if information about me was
to be accidentally released, I would prefer that it be to someone with a
similarly spelled name in another city or state (as would occur in an
alphabetic sort) than to someone down the street (although it was admittedly
easier in this case to send the report to the correct destination).

Rob Aitken, HP Santa Clara  aitken@dtl.hp.com


REVIEW of THE GLASS COCKPIT

Robert Dorsett <rdd@cactus.org>
Sun, 20 Oct 91 09:04:32 CDT
[ This may be of interest to RISKS readers.  The tape described would
definitely go a long way toward clearing up a lot of misconceptions which keep
on popping up. ]

THE GLASS COCKPIT.  80 min.  $49 + $3 S&H.  Aviation & Space Videos,
316 N.  12th St., Sacramento, CA  95814.  800-348-9933.

"The Glass Cockpit" is an introduction to the Flight Management System
(FMS) concept, using the 757/767 cockpit environment as a practical
example.  FMS's comprise the backbone of the operation of modern jet
aircraft, and were introduced beginning in the early 1980's.

The setting is that of an operational United Airlines 767 flight
simulator.  The tape follows this approximate format:
        - Introduction to displays:
                - electronic attitude director indicator (EADI).
                - Nav display (EHSI).
                - upper Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System
                  (EICAS).
                - lower EICAS.
        - Intro to autopilot mode control panel.
        - Detailed coverage of the Control Data Unit (longest segment).

The tape finishes with an event-oriented flight from LAX to SFO,
including a demonstration of how to use the FMS to accomodate two
changed clearances: one at departure, and one inbound.  It finishes
with a CAT IIIA landing.  It's exclusively demonstrated on the
instruments: the only "out the window" view is when the airplane
crosses decision height (and even that's overlayed on what we'd be
seeing on the EADI).

The narrator/emcee sits in the captain's seat, showing us around the
cockpit and systems.  A split-screen format is frequently used, as is a
screen pointer.  The coordination of the presentation of systems is
good: changes made through the CDU or autopilot mode panel are shown on
the EADI or EHSI.


Overall, the quality of the tape comes across as somewhat amateurish:
there's a lot of background noise from the simulator, for instance, so
the narrator has to speak up, which in turn sounds kind of
stiltish--rather like those 50's and 60's-era documentaries we all had
to sit through in grade school. :-)

A major failing is that we *see* changes to the CDU through the *right*
CDU.  However, the majority of the changes are *made* through the *left*
CDU.  Thus, we don't see EXACTLY how items are "put into the scratchpad"
or assigned to other items (an operation which, surprisingly, looks a lot
like Mac- style Cut & Paste).  The narration usually goes "Now, we'll
put line L# in the scratchpad, then put it in over line R#..."  But we
don't really see the mechanics involved.

The strong point is the quality of the amount of data on the subject
matter itself: it's an excellent introduction to the systems.  The
narrator is clearly a proponent of FMS systems, but one has got to
wonder whether his basic points (smarter, more economical, faster) are
presented effectively: there's a LOT of heads-down workload in that
simple run from LAX from SFO.  It's an unrealistic example for a 767,
but we know that 737s (and MD-80s, and, eventually, A320s) have to do
this all the time.  And the CDU comes across as the User Interface from
Hell: slow, and with a hodgepodge of text sizes and styles.  It's very
difficult to tell what the "active" fields are, and what the labels are
(it's bad enough that I started to suspect parallax between the
selector buttons and fields from the camera angle, but when we actually
see what the fingers are doing, it turns out that it really is that
bad).  Even the narrator gets "lost" a couple of times.  But I
digress.  Again. :-)

Overall, the tape's worth having, for those interested in glass
cockpits.


Glossary:

CAT IIIA   An ILS landing, with no decision height, and RVR of 700'.
CDU        Control Data Unit.  Primitive, keyboard-driven interface between
           pilot & FMC.
EADI       Electronic Attitude Director Indicator.
EHSI       Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator.  Shows A/C plan view
           relative to navaids and waypoints.
EICAS      Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System.  For engine and systems
           monitoring, systems messages, and checklists Replaces F/E and
           traditional center instruments.
F/E        Flight Engineer.
FMC        Flight Management Computer.  Central aspect of the FMS.
FMS        Flight Management System. The sum total: FMC, CDU, IRS, displays,
           etc.
ILS        Instrument Landing System.  A way of landing airplanes in low
           visibility.
IRS        Inertial Reference System.  Black box that tells pilots where the
           plane is.
LAX        Los Angeles International Airport.
RVR        Runway Visual Range.  Visibility down the runway, measured by
           mechanical instruments.
SFO        San Francisco International Airport


Disclaimer: I have no personal or business connection whatsoever with
Aviation & Space Videos, Inc, or any of its products.


Yet another journalistic cock-up

Simon E Spero <ses@ccgr.technion.ac.il>
Fri, 18 Oct 91 00:51:05 -0200
  There's an double page spread in "Ha'aretz" today (17/10/91) based on an
interview with an ex-cracker who for the past four years has run a computer
security firm. When he was a teenager, he took his revenge on a hated maths
teacher by breaking into computer of the American bureau of an Israeli paper,
and inserting a false story reporting on how the said teacher had been arrested
on a drugs charge. The story was duly transmitted back to Israel, and printed
in the next edition.  [See Risks:???? Internet link's down, and I can't reach
the WAIS risks archive (meta-risk?)]

  Now it seems he's found an even easier way to get bogus articles into
a newspaper - just talk to a journalist.

  He decided to demonstrate his prowess to the journalist by breaking in
to one our VM machine. The account he chose was that of the head of
the Computer Centre advisory centre. The owner of this account isn't
the most technical of people- her passwords are chosen from a quite small,
related set of words. Four years ago, he broke into her account - he claims
that by chance, her password happened to be the same at the time of the
demonstration. I have no evidence to contradict this,although it seems more
likely that he guessed her current password using the information he had from
the old one.

Up until this point, the article is mostly accurate - but now, the
bogometer needle starts going off the scale.

  ------

Claim #1: He claimed that the account be broke was privileged.

Lie: The account was an ordinary user account, with *no* system priviledges.

  ------

Claim #2: He stated that the account name had a prefix which indicated that
          the account was special, and that this showed how naive the system
      managers were.

Lie: See #1. Even if his claim were valid, the risk is exactly the same as
             being able to cat /etc/groups on a UN*X box to see who's in
         wheel.
  ------

Claim #3: He claimed that from this account he count enter the accounts of
      all employees and researchers, and change their files.

Lie:  See #1.

  ------

Claim #4: He claimed that from this account, he could change information on
      the administration computer. He  offered to wager the journalist
      that he could make him a Technion employee, give him a professorship,
      pay him a bonus, and then erase everything without leaving a trace.

Lie:  See #1. Also, the administration computer is completely separate from
      VM machine. The only connection is that both have the same three letters
      written on them. This machine can only be connected to from special
      terminals.

  ------

Claim #5: He claimed he could shutdown the computer and destroy all the
      data on the machine.

Lie:  See #1.

  ------

Claim #6: He claimed he could destroy all the back-ups.

Lie:  Maybe if he stuck  magnets on a few  SCUD-C's and lobbed them at the
      various tape archives. It's a lot harder to spoof a human being,
      especially when you're a 24 year old male, and the spoofee is a
      50ish woman.

He also makes  other false statements, including a claim that before he
hired a salesman, he never approached anyone to offer his services. Four
years ago, he came to the Technion, and offered his  services to
a member of computer centre staff. This offer was not taken up.

  What made things worse was the slightly inept performance of the Technion
spokesbeing. After a quick telephone call to the head of the centre, who gave
him the usual spiel about how  theoretically, all systems are breakable if you
can connect to them, and that without more details, he  couldn't say what
the cracker could or could not do. The spokesbeing took this message, and
then garbled so completely that he acknowledged almost all the allegations
in the article.

The risks?
1: Technologicaly naive journalists can easily be taken for a ride by
   experts with something to sell. The best computer reports in the press
   come from papers like "{\em The} {\sf Guardian}", where the computer
   editor has a technical background as well as a journalistic one.

2: Technologicaly naive spokebeings can be taken for a ride by journalists
   with something to sell. Maybe Spaf or Cliff Stoll could give pointers on
   how to handle the media when statements can only come from the talking
   suits.

3: The boy who called "wolf!" effect. We know that our computers aren't secure
   (here in the UNIX group, doubly so). In an academic environment, there's
   really nothing you can do about it, except for blocking the more obvious
   holes, and keeping good backups. But when an article like the Ha'aretz one
   appears, it throws a bad light upon the institution, and lessens the
   impact when you really do have a serious break in.

Simon    ses@techunix.technion.ac.il   ses@techunix.bitnet   Tel +972-4-292658


Assurance of High-Integrity Software - Report

Rick Kuhn <kuhn@swe.ncsl.nist.gov>
Fri, 18 Oct 91 08:34:00 EDT
Assurance of High Integrity Software - report available

The need for dependable software has resulted in the production of a variety of
standards: the Trusted Computer Security Evaluation Criteria ("Orange Book"),
the British MoD 00-55, the DO-178A standard for civil aviation, the IEC 880
standard for the nuclear industry, and others.  Because of technical, economic,
and political considerations, these standards approach the question of
assurance from a variety of viewpoints.  There is much disagreement over how
dependable software can be produced.  The controversy over MoD 00-55, with its
requirement for formal methods and deprecated programming practices, is a
recent example.

To address the question of assuring the trustworthiness and integrity
of software, and what assurances should be required in standards, the
National Institute of Standards and Technology brought together experts
from industry, academia, and government in a Workshop on the Assurance
of High Integrity Software in January.  The report is now available for
electronic distribution.  (It will soon be available from the Govt.
Printing Office in paper form.) The report can be obtained from our
mail server.  Both Postscript and troff formats are available.  Send a
message containing ONE of the following requests to posix@nist.gov:

    send ahisrptp               /* for Postscript */
    send ahisrptt               /* for troff */

The report will be delivered as three (troff) or 16 (postscript) email
messages.  Remove the headers and concatenate the files, then unpack them using
either 'unshar' or the UNIX shell 'sh'.  (Instructions included in the files.)


Video stores losing videos...

Chris A. Anderson <caa@unify.com>
Thu, 17 Oct 91 10:00:27 pdt
Mowgli Assor mentions an occurrence that happened to him at Blockbuster Video
recently.  I also had something like this happen to me and it's worth sharing
with others...

Our local video store (not Blockbuster, by the way) also has a very nice
computer system that keeps track of what's checked in and out, as well as a
history of recent transactions.  At one point, I had a video out for longer
than the rental period and was required to pay for the extra time.  I paid with
a check and went my way without a thought.

Several weeks later, I was renting another video from the same store when the
attendant told me that I owed money on a late rental.  I couldn't remember
being late with anything, so I asked him for the title (hoping to jog my
memory).  It turned out to be the video that I had payed for previously.  I
told him that I had already payed for it.  He replied that their system had no
record of it.  I asked if there was any other audit trail and of course there
wasn't.

At that point I said that I had the cancelled check at home and that I would go
and get it for him.  He told me that a cancelled check didn't prove anything,
since it wouldn't have what it was for on it (the store sells other things as
well as renting videos).

By this point, I was upset and asked to speak to the manager.  The attendant
replied that he was at home and they were not allowed to call him there.
Deciding that I had had enough, I asked for my drivers license back (the store
uses the DL number to identify the renter).  He refused to give it to me until
I payed for the late video.  I blew up at that point and asked for him to call
the manager at home again.  He refused.  I asked for the manager's name.  He
gave it to me and I went to a pay phone to look him up in the phone book and
call him.

The manager agreed that this was an unfortunate occurrence and asked
me to pay the late fee "just for now" and then bring him the cancelled
check in the morning.  I wasn't available to bring him the check in
the morning since it was a workday, and he wasn't available any other
time.  He kept repeating that his computer system always kept "perfect"
track of all of the accounts, and that it couldn't be wrong.

In the end, I payed the video late fee, got my drivers license back, took my
cancelled check to the manager's home (it was conveniently listed in the phone
book) and had him write me a personal check to cover the late fee.  He didn't
really believe the cancelled check, but I had already proved myself to be a
dangerously unbalanced person just by driving to his home at 10:00pm to recover
a $3.00 late fee.

To the end, he kept repeating that his computer systems didn't make mistakes.
Like most people, he didn't realize that it took *humans* to enter the data
into the system and that they *did* make mistakes.

Needless to say, I do business elsewhere now.  And the video store that I use
has a paper trail to back up the computer system.  Just another risk.

Chris Anderson, Unify Corp.


Re: Blockbuster `Loses' Returned Video

Brian Boutel <boutel-brian@CS.YALE.EDU>
Thu, 17 Oct 91 10:12:46 EDT
This is a problem that can occur in any library. It arises for two reasons.
First, in almost all modern circulation control systems, the discharge
transaction is not done at the time of return - the books/videos are left on
the counter for later processing, and human failure can then intrude. Second,
there is no physical evidence residing with the borrower (a receipt?) that
provides proof of the return.

The antique (Brown?) system solved these problems. Borrowers had a collection
of tickets, and could borrow one item per ticket. Books also had tickets, and
the loan record was the physical pairing of a borrower ticket and a book
ticket, usually one fitted inside the other, filed in chronological order of
due date. When returning items, borrowers had to wait for the loans to be
discharged in order to have their tickets returned. Being able to account for
all your tickets was proof of not having lost or stolen a book. Alas,
computerised systems have cost us this piece of security.

Actually, some library systems go to the other extreme. One library I used
microfilmed each issue transation. An 80-column card with a transaction number
both punched and printed on it was inserted into the book, and the open book,
card, and borrower's ID were photographed together. Presumably the control on
non-returned books was based on sorting returned cards and looking for gaps in
the sequence, which could then be looked up on the film record. The risk here
was for the library, since the primary record of the loan was with the
borrower. As long as the card was returned, the library assumed that the book
with which the card was issued had been returned, which did not follow at all.

On the subject of risks associated with video libraries, last year (at home in
New Zealand) I went to borrow a video, and was told that my card had been
reported lost, and was no longer valid. I had not made that report, and had
been out of town on the day it was recorded. I said "But it's not lost. I'm
here, I have the card, and ID to prove who I am." They said "Sorry, but there
is no way we can reactivate that card. The computer won't let us. You will have
to go to head office for that."  "But I want to take out this movie now."
Silence, then: "Oh, I know what we can do. We can issue you a new card." Which
they then did, using the same ID previously offered. It turned out that one of
my children, looking for my card in the drawer where it is usually kept, failed
to find it - it happened to be in my wallet that day - decided to apply for
their own card, and reported mine missing at the same time. This report was
accepted, and prevented the legitimate owner (me) from using t!  he card, even
though it was made by someone else, not even obviously a family member since
they have a different address and surname.
                                                  --Brian Boutel


Re: Blockbuster `Loses' Returned Video (v12n51)

"Matt Crawford" <matt@oddjob.uchicago.edu>
Thu, 17 Oct 91 11:16:55 CDT
When I first got a VCR, not so awfully long ago, I used to always ask for a
receipt when I returned a rented movie.  They would *never* give me one.  I
kept asking, figuring if they lost a movie I'd at least be memorable as the guy
who always asked for a receipt.


Re: Blockbuster 'Loses' Returned Video

<hughes@gpx1.square-d.com>
Fri, 18 Oct 1991 11:07:53 EDT
    I have experienced a similar situation at another video store and have
found at least a temporary manual solution to the problem (until they make the
bar code readers available and print receipts).  Whenever I check a video (or
any valuable media) out now, whether from a store or the library, I physically
make sure that they check it in as I stand there.  This avoids problems of the
nature Mr. Assor has described.  This may seem like a bit of a nuisance at
times, especially when you are in a hurry, but believe me, it is a small price
compared to what one video company wanted when they claimed that *five* videos
(3 childrens movies and two comedies for those of you who keep track of these
things) had not been returned.  Sometimes the employees give me problems when
asked to do this but if I forcefully explain that an incompetent employee was
the reason for this and perhaps I should explain this to their manager, I
usually have no more problems.

    It seems a bit redundant in this ultra-efficient computer age to have
to manually force this condition but as long as there is a human link in the
chain of events, there needs to be a check on that link.
                                                             Kevin Hughes


Re: Blockbuster `Loses' Returned Video

Patricia Shanahan <ps@dreamit.fps.com>
Fri, 18 Oct 91 08:34:39 PDT
[Rented video tape actually returned, but the return not recorded in the stores
computer system, and the tape is not on the shelf where it should be.]

>  At this time, Blockbuster thinks I stole the tape (even though the manager
>doesn't ;) & since I gave them the proof I didn't on Monday & they lost it, I
>of course have no proof anymore. The risk of relying on employees to know their
>jobs, I guess.

There are both technological and social fixes for this type of problem. The
best technical fix that I can think of would be for the store to have a barcode
reading receipt printer. It would take only a moment to scan each tape as it is
returned, and hand the customer a printed receipt proving that the tape was
returned.

There are currently a large number of transactions that do not have
satisfactory systems for verifying what happened. ATM transactions have similar
problems.

The social fix that I think should be applied is to force the cost of such
disputes onto the person who has the power to determine how the transaction is
done. There is already in at least some states a rule that resolves ambiguity
in a contract against the person who wrote the contract. The equivalent rule
would say that any issue of fact that is inherently unresolvable because of how
the transaction is organized is to be decided against the person who designed
the transaction.

The application in this case would be that if the customer claims to have
returned the tape, and the store designed a tape return system that leaves both
the customer without any proof of return, and the store without any proof of
non-return, then the store should carry the cost. If the store always issues a
receipt for returned tapes, than it becomes reasonable for the store to demand
that the customer either return the tape or produce a receipt. The store would
have to judge whether the cost of issuing receipts exceeds the cost of lost
tapes due to customers lying about having returned them.

Patricia Shanahan   ps@fps.com uucp : ucsd!celerity!ps  (619) 271-9940

    [Time to blow the whistle on this subject...  But there are
    a lot of lessons to be learned by the unwary customer.  Asking
    for a receipt sounds like a great idea.  If enough customers did
    ask, the video outfits might do something intelligent!  You might
    bring in a piece of paper with the name of the film and the date,
    and INSIST that the clerk sign it.  PGN]

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