The Risks Digest

The RISKS Digest

Forum on Risks to the Public in Computers and Related Systems

ACM Committee on Computers and Public Policy, Peter G. Neumann, moderator

Volume 14 Issue 09

Tuesday 24 November 1992

Contents

o BNFL Sellafield nuclear incident
Peter Ilieve
o Privacy Risks of Computerized Medical Billing
Paul Kleeberg via John Bonine
o Teller machine networks
Steve Holzworth
o Re: Election HW/SW problems
Rebecca Mercuri
o The ultimate in anti-virus, anti-invasion security
Lee S. Ridgway
o Technophones
David Honig
o Re: London Ambulance Service
Trevor Jenkins
o Mathematics of Dependable Systems
conference announcement
Vicky Stavridou
o Info on RISKS (comp.risks)

BNFL Sellafield nuclear incident (followup to RISKS-12.65)

Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk>
Tue, 24 Nov 92 13:43:16 GMT
RISKS readers with long memories or good archives may remember the piece I
submitted about an incident at the British Nuclear Fuels plc plant at
Sellafield (RISKS-12.65). I recently noticed that the official report by the
Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) had been published in July and I now
have a copy. It is summarised below.  As will be seen at the end, this is a
real `text-book' incident.

First, the complete text of the Health and Safety Executive's quarterly
Statement of Nuclear Incidents relating to this incident.  This was dated 3 Jan
92. The NII are part of the HSE.

  In September maintenence work was taking place within a monitoring cell at
  British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) Sellafield Waste Vitrification Plant, which is
  used to handle containers of highly active vitrified waste. To facilitate the
  maintenence two shield doors, normally closed during cell operations, had
  been opened to allow access.

  On 15 September, a container of the vitrified waste was raised into the cell
  remotely by a process worker who had been instructed to restart operations.
  The worker then observed on a TV monitor that both sets of shield doors were
  still open and took action to close them, reinstating the shielding. No
  workers were in the area at the time.

  The matter was reported to the HSE's Nuclear Installations Inspectorate
  (NII), which immediately started an investigation to determine the causes of
  the incident. A similar investigation was also set in train by BNFL. The
  plant will remain shut down until the results of these investigations are
  known and any necessary modifications to the equipment and changes to
  procedures have been completed to prevent a recurrence. The NII will monitor
  the implementation of these changes to both plant and procedures.

This is a very bland statement, just saying `two doors were open'.  The
incident was considered serious though. There are about 3 incidents reported
via this mechanism every quarter but I can't remember another case where a full
report was published.

To the report itself. Knowing that nobody was irradiated or otherwise hurt you
can enjoy the comedy of errors that follows.

The cell involved was a room with a robot in it. Freshly cast blocks of
vitrified waste were cooled and decontaminated on the level below the cell,
then lifted by a crane through a hatch door in the floor, given a final scrub
down by the robot, and then passed up trough another door, the gamma gate, in
the ceiling.  The two shield doors allow access into the cell for people to fix
the robot, using the doors like an airlock.

When the plant was designed it was not expected that much fixing would be
needed and it was though acceptable that only one door would be open at a time
during maintenence. The system that ensured this was a Programmable Logic
Controller (PLC) driven by a key exchange box. This is a partly mechanical
thing that ensures that the key needed to open the outer door is trapped in a
dummy lock until an external key from the Permit Foreman's office is inserted
and the key to operate the inner door is put in a dummy lock and the inner door
is closed. It would seem to be enough in itself to ensure that only one door is
open at at time.  There is also a hardwired interlock to prevent the outer door
opening if a gamma monitor inside the cell detected high radiation.

During the initial commissioning of the plant it was discovered that the robot
needed a lot more fixing than at first thought, and it was also decided that it
would be better if people working inside the cell could get out quickly by
having both doors open at once.  An additional keyswitch was added to the key
exchange box to bypass the existing arrangement, with another key which was
normally held in the Permit Foreman's office.

In mid 1990, still during commissioning, more changes were made.  Hardware
changes were made to ensure that the doors could only open in the correct
sequence and that the hatch door in the floor could not open if the new
override key was in use. Software changes were also made to prevent the hatch
door opening when the inner door was open `however, instead of being achieved
directly, this was effected by a complicated set of conditional relationships
intended to ensure that the inner door could only be opened if the in-cell
crane was parked next to the inner door'. If the crane was parked there it
could not be lifting anything through the hatch.

During commissioning of these mods. a further change was made to the PLC
program. This was designed to prevent the hatch door opening when the inner
door was open. `However it has since been shown to contain a coding error: a
"+" sign had been missed out, which rendered it completely ineffective.' This
did not cause the incident, but if it had been correct it would have prevented
it.

There are procedures under the nuclear site licence from the NII that
modifications should be categorised according to their safety importance and if
they are significant they should be checked and the NII informed before
proceeding. All of these mods. were categorised as minor, partly because they
were designed to improve things and partly because no single mod. could have a
serious effect as there were multiple protective systems. As a result, they
were not comprehensively checked, nor was the NII informed.

The scene was set for the incident by the need to fix the robot and also to
replace some hydraulic hoses in the cell. The Foreman's log shows that at 22:00
on Thursday 12 September 91 the outer door was in the closed position.

The conditions for entering the cell, laid down in the written cell entry
procedure, included the isolation of the gamma gate in the ceiling and a mobile
decontamination tank below the hatch door in the floor, first checking that the
tank was not below the hatch. Isolating the gamma gate also isolated the supply
to the switch indicating the gate was closed. This meant that the in-cell crane
could not be moved, as the signal saying the gamma gate was closed was not
present. This was not recognised at the time.

The cell entry procedure states that the inner door should be opened first.
However, the Foreman's log at 06:30 on Friday showed that the outer door was
open. The Foreman tried to open the inner door and failed, because:

a. The outer door was open and the software in the PLC would not allow
   the inner door to open in this condition
b. The in-cell crane was not parked just inside the inner door, which
   the PLC also required to see before opening the inner door.

The Foreman thought the inner door was actually faulty and got the maintenance
department to look at it. They spent most of Friday morning trying to find a
fault, before realising that the doors were being opened in the wrong sequence.
They then shut the outer door.  The inner door would still not open as the
in-cell crane was parked above the hatch door, and it could not be moved
without re-energising the gamma gate.

After thinking about this for a while the Shift Manager decided to place a
temporary override on the PLC to fool it into thinking the crane was in the
correct position just inside the inner door.  `This course of action was
quicker to implement. The decision was probably influenced by the fact that the
engineer responsible for robot repairs worked on dayshift only: there might not
have been time to complete the necessary repairs if the other systems had been
re-energised to move the crane and then re-isolated in accordance with the
checklist.'

He authorised a Temporary Plant Modification Proposal (TPMP) and got the door
to open. The details of this TPMP were added to the shift log, the permit to
work, and a TPMP book, but the entry in the shift log did not get carried
forward to subsequent shifts.

The robot engineer fixed the robot. The doors were left open as the hoses still
needed replacing. `During the night shift little work was done in the Control
Cell as the replacement hoses were found to have the wrong end fittings.'

Work restarted about Saturday lunchtime and was probably finished by about
18:00 on Saturday. The cell could not be re-energised yet as there was no
electrician on duty who could do this until the night shift.  The Shift
Manager's log noted that the doors were still open and the Foreman's log said
that the outer door was open and the cell still needed re-energising. The TPMP
was not mentioned at this handover to the Saturday night shift. Shortly before
midnight the electrician was authorised to re-energise the cell. The TPMP
remained in place.

The incident itself happened when an operator raised a container of waste
through the hatch door into the cell. His written instructions had nothing
about checking the state of the doors, his control panel had no indicators for
the doors, and it was almost impossible to see the doors from his control
position. He did have a TV monitor to provide another view of the cell and as
he raised the container he noticed in the background that the doors were open.
He went to another control panel about 5 metres away and managed to close the
inner door. The TPMP gets an honourable mention here as without it the PLC
would not have allowed the inner door to move.

Nobody was in the room outside the cell. Four people were in the next room and
they were warned by an alarm in the room outside the cell.  These people were
not intending to enter this room at all.  Nobody was found to have received any
radiation exposure from the incident.

During the subsequent NII investigation it was discovered that:

- The changes to the key exchange box for the doors had resulted in its design
becoming unsafe. The added override key was not held captive in the box so it
could be removed at any time, and if it was removed it restored power to the
hatch door. Also, once the outer door was open the keys could be removed from
the box by reversing the normal sequence but with the outer door still open.
These defects had not been discovered during any of the commissioning stages.
It was not discovered when the keys had been removed and returned to the Permit
Foreman's office.

- The permit to work was signed off based on the keys being returned without
any physical check of the state of the doors.

- The logic controlling the crane did not care that the crane appeared to be in
two places at once, where it really was and where the TPMP said it was. The
logic still allowed the crane to lift the container of waste into the cell in
this condition.

- The PLC modification to prevent the hatch door opening if the inner door was
open, described above, had the coding error involving the + sign.

The NII made various technical recommendations, but their first
recommendation bears repeating:

  The incident graphically illustrates the need for:

  (a) those who design and operate such plants to ensure that the protection
  systems provided are, so far as is reasonably practicable, independent of the
  control systems for the plants. The design and operation of such systems
  should be made as simple as possible.

The NII are also discussing with BNFL and the IAEA to get this incident
included as one of the case-book examples on the International Nuclear Event
Scale for Nuclear Reprocessing Plants.

Summarised from: HSE, Windscale Vitrification Plant Shield Door Incident
15 September 1991, HMSO, ISBN 0 11 886348 7.
                                              Peter Ilieve peter@memex.co.uk


Privacy Risks of Computerized Medical Billing

John Bonine E-LAW US <ejohn@igc.apc.org>
Mon, 23 Nov 92 07:16:33 PST
I forward to you the following, which contains a good discussion, from a
professor of medicine in Minnesota, of why doctors are resisting a drive for
(seemingly innocuous) computerization of billing procedures.  John Bonine

>From: Paul Kleeberg <PAUL@gacvx1.gac.edu>
>
>Last Thursday Gerald M. Phillips <GMP@PSUVM.BITNET> said:
>
<> I was working with AMANET when it collapsed because doctors wouldn't use it.
>Out of curiosity, did you aver ask the doctors why?  I used it and found the
>interface somewhat non-intuitive and was disappointed that there was never
>any type of gateway established with the Internet.  The current iteration of
>AMA/Net => U.S. HealthLink also is free standing though I am told they are
>looking into an internet gateway.  Same non-intuitive interface.  Many of us
>who would most wish to use the system (rural physicians) have to pay long
>distance phone charges on top of access charges.
>
<> Now the HCFA is mandating computerized recordkeeping, but doctors are
<> fighting it tooth and nail.
>
>The family doctors on my list (Fam-Med) are concerned about a number of
>things.  Among them: confidentiality of patient records, who is going to pay
>for this change and has it ever been shown to improve outcome or patient
>care?
>
>Regarding the confidentiality of patient records, the paper chart assured
>confidentiality since it could never be found.  An electronic chart can be
>accessed by several people at once from distant locations and since payors
>are one of the groups who are strongly supportive of an electronic record, I
>might be just a bit concerned as an individual.  Given payors propensity to
>exclude preexisting conditions, a simple keyword search of an electronic
>chart could unearth all sorts of interesting data about an individual with
>little effort.  It would further interfere with the physician-patient
>relationship causing patients to be even more cautious about the types of
>information that got into their chart.
>
>Who is going to pay for it?  Gov't has told us in no uncertain terms that we
>physicians should.  For those of us in struggling rural practices, that
>added burden will be all that it takes to cause some of us to close up shop
>and join a HMO in a metropolitan area (Better pay, less call, fewer
>administrative hassles and better cultural quality of life) or just retire.
>For those of you in urban areas that may not sound like much but out here in
>rural America, where communities and hospitals depend on having a physician,
>it can mean economic survival of the community as well as life or death for
>the individual.
>
>Has it ever been shown to improve outcome or patient care?  We all believe
>it will but I do not believe it has ever been studied.  Nothing like going
>full tilt investing megabucks in systems we *believe* should work without
>first evaluating the costs or measuring the benefits of implementation.
>Lets look at the systems in use today.  What difference have they made?
>
>You can be sure that if a computer can be shown to help a physician see more
>patients in a day, reduce the cost of providing services or enable her to
>provide a higher quality of care to her patients, it will be quickly adapted.
>
>Paul Kleeberg, M.D., 604 North 3rd St, St. Peter, MN 56082       507-931-6721
>Family Practice, University of Minnesota  Paul@GAC.Edu or Paul@GACVAX1.Bitnet


Teller machine networks

Steve Holzworth <sch@unx.sas.com>
Mon, 23 Nov 1992 15:12:14 -0500 (EST)
I experienced an interesting failure of an ATM network over the weekend.  Using
a Mastercard supplied by an out-of-state (OUS) bank, I accessed an ATM at my
usual personal bank, NationsBank (NC). I was attempting to get my bank card
balance. The ATM had me enter my PIN, then asked for the transaction type. I
pressed "Acct. Balance" (actually, a series of buttons), and the ATM paused
briefly, then dutifully spit out a receipt with a balance on it. The
interesting thing was that the balance, to the best of my knowledge, was about
$1200 high, just over my credit limit. I was NOT amused.  I assumed I might
have been subjected to a fraudulent use of my card, so I went home and called
the 800 number for OUS. I reached a call director, which among other things,
allowed balance requests. I asked for my balance, and was given a number right
in line with what I expected, about $2000. Further, the automated system stated
that this WAS the current balance as of that day, Saturday.

Monday morning, I called OUS Customer Service and spoke with one of their
representatives. I related the problem I had had over the weekend. She checked
the balance herself, and indicated that the automated system gave the correct
number, and the ATM gave an incorrect number. Her response was: 'it's an ATM
failure, so you need to contact that bank about it...'.

I called the local branch of NationsBank, the same branch where the ATM is
located. They had me call an 800 number for NationsBank. The person there
looked at a few things, including my current CHECKING balance, just in case the
ATM had printed THAT number by mistake (!). Nope, not even close. After leaving
me on hold for awhile, she stated that her supervisor felt that I should speak
to someone in their ATM division. I was transferred there to yet another
front-line service rep. After I explained the circumstances again, she thought
about, then said it was OUS's problem since they were the issuing bank for the
card and I should take it up with them (of course).

Ignoring the customer service runaround, there are several interesting points
here:

1) My ATM is getting (or giving me) an incorrect balance for a Mastercard,
despite being part of the Mastercard ATM net. Note that the normal failure for
a request not handled by the network, or the bank in question, is to say "Not a
valid transaction type" (or something like that). I've had this happen when
attempting a balance request for a card from yet another bank.

2) If my balance request is being mishandled, what about cash withdrawals?
What number actually gets relayed between the banks?

3) The printed receipt has the correct Mastercard number on it, along with the
text:

   CC INQUIRY
   FR CREDIT CARD
   BALANCE       $too.many

so it thought it was doing the correct transaction, with the correct account.

4) The only numbers I enter are for my PIN (4 digits).

5) Off the topic, but interesting, is the fact that my bank-supplied PIN is
identical to the third group of digits in the account number.  This may be a
strange coincidence, or an example of gross stupidity.

Steve Holzworth  sch@unx.sas.com  SAS Institute, Open Systems R&D, Cary, N.C.


Re: Election HW/SW problems (Urken, RISKS-14.08)

Rebecca Mercuri <mercuri@gradient.cis.upenn.edu>
Sat, 21 Nov 92 19:39:39 EST
A. Urken posted some comments in RISKS-14.08 regarding the FEC's and NASED's
joint efforts in "development of standards and certification testing" for
election equipment and software. This is a somewhat misleading statement. The
"standards" that have been issued to date are not standards, only suggested
guidelines. They need to be adopted by the individual states before they are
accepted as standards. This is a lengthy process, and some states have been lax
in doing so. Furthermore, upon investigation of these documents, it will be
revealed that the rigorous security standards work of NCSC, which takes the
form of the rainbow series, seems to have been largely ignored by the FEC and
NASED to date.

Note that election equipment does not come under the Computer Security Act,
and hence it is not required to conform to any Orange Book standards. The
question that concerned citizens have been asking for years is: WHY NOT?

Although Independent Testing Agencies are now becoming "certified," the purpose
of ITAs is presently dubious.  SRI [a consultant to N.Y.C. and the system
evaluators] had its hands tied by two non-disclosure agreements (one 6 years,
and one 30 years) by one manufacturer of election equipment, during an
(ongoing) examination process. The policy of the FEC is to allow secrecy in the
examinations, in order to preserve trade secrets claimed by the manufacturers.
Perhaps someone can explain how an ITA can be "independent" while being
prohibited from disclosing certain information they discover in the course of
their testing process to the intended purchasers?  Yes, the manufacturers know
that they can protect their property with copyrights and patents, but some have
claimed that such filings would "provide a road map to rigging elections" and
so rely on and impose trade secrecy.

Regarding Peter Mellor's posting on City University's SW Engineering program:
HAIL BRITTANIA! Let us ally forces and post some curricula to the forum!

Rebecca Mercuri.

Copyright (c) 1992 by Rebecca Mercuri. All Rights Reserved.
Permission granted to RISKS FORUM for posting, and ELECTRONIC reposting
is permitted in its ENTIRETY, with this notice intact. Printed (hard-)
copy may only be made for personal (non-profit) use. The author retains
all rights to the material herein.


The ultimate in anti-virus, anti-invasion security

"Lee S. Ridgway" <RIDGWAY@mitvma.mit.edu>
Tue, 24 Nov 92 09:35:56 EST
Found in rec.humor:

  Here are The Three Laws of Secure Computing (TLSC)

  1) Don't buy a computer

  2) If you do buy a computer, don't plug it in.

  And, finally,

  3) If you do plug it in, sell it and return to step 1.


Technophones

David Honig <honig@ruffles.ICS.UCI.EDU>
Fri, 20 Nov 92 17:03:26 -0800
Just encountered yet another hazard of modern life.  In a certain new office
phone system, unplugging the phone from the wall jack disables it.  It won't
work after its plugged in again, though after a moment it does tell you the
time.

Also, hidden in the manual is a line telling you not to reprogram certain keys.
Of course, someone tried it, not having memorized the manual, and this disabled
not only the phone but also the receptionist's master phone.

Pretty neat, huh?


Re: London Ambulance Service (RISKS-14.05)

Trevor Jenkins <tfj@apusapus.demon.co.uk>
Sat, 21 Nov 92 11:54:00 GMT
Some news related to the London Ambulance Service fiasco.

This week's edition of Computer Weekly had a small article from the chief
executive of the British Computer Society. The implication was that had the
programmers and analysts from the LAS project participated in the society's
Professional Development Scheme then this fiasco would not have happened.

I doubt his conclusion very much because I've been a member of the BCS for the
last 15 years and during that time I have received nothing substantial about
the PDS. What I know about the scheme has been gleaned from Computer Weekly and
Computing rather than from the BCS themselves. If those involved in the LAS
fiasco would have benefitted from such a scheme it is unlikely that they would
have discovered that the scheme existed.
                                                   Trevor

PS Computer Weekly and Computing are the ``free'' weekly trade press.

Trevor Jenkins, 134 Frankland Rd, Croxley Green, Rickmansworth, WD3 3AU,
England   email: tfj@apusapus.demon.co.uk   phone: +44 (0)923 776436


Conference announcement

Vicky Stavridou <victoria@dcs.rhbnc.ac.uk>
Mon, 23 Nov 92 18:03:25 GMT
        THE INSTITUTE OF MATHEMATICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS
             THE MATHEMATICS OF DEPENDABLE SYSTEMS
                    1st--3rd September 1993
  Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, United Kingdom

            PRELIMINARY ANNOUNCEMENT AND CALL FOR PAPERS

The construction of dependable systems, by which we mean systems providing
high levels of reliability, availability, safety and/or security, is a problem
of considerable concern to both providers and users of information processing
systems of all types.  Historically, different aspects of system dependability
(e.g. reliability and security) have been studied quite independently, albeit
that many of the goals are similar.  For example, the notion of certifying
functionality assurance levels applies equally to reliable systems and secure
systems.  In addition, users will often require some combination of security
and fail-safe operation.

The purpose of this conference is to consider the mathematical aspects of the
provision of dependable systems, one goal being a comparison and possible
unification of mathematical techniques for providing safe, reliable and secure
systems.  A number of different mathematical approaches have been taken to the
overall problem, including probabilistic/statistical reasoning, formal models
of safe, secure and reliable systems and logics of authentication and access
control/privilege delegation.  Papers on all these areas are solicited, the
unifying theme being the application of mathematical techniques to the overall
dependability problem.  Hence papers will be particularly welcome which cross-
fertilise the application domains.  The conference will consider dependability
for both hardware and software systems.

Organising Committee
....................

Dr. B. Chorley (National Physical Laboratory)
Dr. J. Jacob (Coventry University)
Prof. B. Littlewood (City University)
Prof. C. Mitchell FIMA (RHUL)
Dr. V. Stavridou (RHUL)
Dr. V. Varadharajan (Hewlett-Packard)

Call for papers
...............

Extended abstracts of papers (of between 1000 and 1500 words) should be
submitted to: Miss Pamela Irving, Conference Officer, IMA, 16 Nelson Street,
Southend-on-Sea, Essex SS1 1EF, United Kingdom to arrive no later than 31st
March 1993.

Authors will be notified of the decision of the programme committee regarding
their paper by 31st May 1993.  Accepted papers will have a 30 minute
presentation time at the conference.  The conference will be run under the
normal IMA procedures.

Conference Proceedings
......................

It is hoped that the proceedings of the conference will be published by Oxford
University Press in the IMA Conference Proceedings Series.  Full papers will
be subjected to the normal refereeing procedure after the conference before
being accepted for publication in the proceedings.

Location
........

The conference will be held at Royal Holloway, University of London (RHUL),
Egham, Surrey, England where accommodation will be available for participants
from the evening of August 31st 1993.  RHUL combines an attractive parkland
setting with easy transport access (5 minutes from the M25, 20 minutes from
Heathrow airport, and 40 minutes by train from London Waterloo).

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