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Well, William Kahan informs me that (1) Inmos used formal methods for the FP on the T800, but that they got the specification wrong. (2) Intel actually had in its possession a test that Kahan had designed that uncovers the flaw after about 2 minutes of testing. The test (as I understand it) is sort of "gray box" in that it makes certain assumptions about the class of algorithm used. These points notwithstanding, however, Kahan still agrees that there is no substitute for formal proof in these cases. Paul Hilfinger
The Intel FDIV bug occurs both in single and in double precision divide. It is NOT a double precision error. The best source of information on this is the web site: http://www.mathworks.com/Pentium/README.html The Pentium uses a subtractive division algorithm based on a radix-4 Booth SRT algorithm. Similar algorithms are used for square root and division in this and several other processors. (We are in the process of working on a survey article of division and square root implementations in recent microprocessors.) The closest verification work I know of is a proof of a radix 2 subtractive square root chip I did with some students here at Cornell. The paper describing this proof appeared in the Conference on Theorem Provers in Circuit Design in September 1994. We are working on a proof of a radix 2 subtractive division implementation. The two proofs are very similar. The square root paper is available by anonymous ftp from tesla.ee.cornell.edu:~pub/hw-verify/sqrt-tpcd94.ps.Z Verification of radix 4 is somewhat more difficult, largely because the implementation depends on a lookup table to guess the next digit. I have heard rumors that the error is in the translation of a table used for digit selection, but no substantiation that this is the case. It is highly likely that the error is related to using the output of the carry-save adder. Since we have not done a proof of a radix 4 algorithm, we do not consider the lookup table in our proof. Our proof shows that the basic algorithm does in fact perform a square root, and then relates this to the register-transfer level implementation of the hardware. We do not prove the correctness of the implementation of each of the blocks of hardware (adders, shifters, etc.) As several people have pointed out, errors occur at several different levels. Formal verification is very useful at high levels, but will not preclude the need for lower level testing or simulation. Miriam Leeser Cornell University firstname.lastname@example.org
[John Rushby was incorrect when he said that the AAMP5 did not have floating point. The following message from the authors of the cited report gives a more accurate summary of the project. PGN] Recently, John Rushby sent a message to this forum giving a reference to a paper about an application of mechanized verification to a commercial microprocessor. I am giving below a summary of the work reported in the paper. For those interested in finding out more details about the project, the paper is available over the web through http://www.csl.sri.com/aamp5.html or by ftp from ftp.csl.sri.com/pub/reports/postscript/aamp5.ps.gz (Note that name of the ftp site has an "ftp" at its head.) ************************************************* Formal Verification of AAMP5 Microprocessor: A Case Study in the Industrial Use of Formal Methods Steve Miller Manadayam Srivas Collins Commercial Avionics Computer Science Laboratory Rockwell International SRI International Cedar Rapids, Iowa 52498 Menlo Park, CA 94025 The AAMP5 verification was a project conducted to explore how formal techniques for specification and verification could be introduced into an industrial process. Sponsored by the Systems Validation Branch of NASA Langley and Collins Commercial Avionics, a division of Rockwell International, it was conducted by Collins and the Computer Science Research Lab at SRI International. The project consisted of specifying in the PVS language developed by SRI a portion of a Rockwell proprietary microprocessor, the AAMP5, at both the instruction set and register-transfer levels and using the PVS theorem prover to show the microcode correctly implemented the specified behavior for a representative subset of instructions. The formal verification was performed in parallel with the development of the AAMP5 and did not replace any production verification activities. The central result of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of formally specifying a commercial microprocessor and the use of mechanical proofs of correctness to verify microcode. This is particularly significant since the AAMP5 was not designed for formal verification, but to provide a more than three-fold performance improvement while remaining object code compatible with the earlier AAMP2. As a consequence, the AAMP5 is one of the most complex microprocessors to which formal methods have been applied. The AAMP architecture is specifically designed for use with block-structured, high level languages like Ada in real-time embedded applications. It is based on a stack architecture and provides hardware support for many features normally provided by the compiler run-time environment, such as procedure state saving, parameter passage, return linkage, and reentrancy. AAMP5 supports floating point calculations implemented via microcode. Besides demonstrating the verification of a subset of AAMP5 microcode, an equally important accomplishment of the project was the development of an effective methodology that can be used by practicing engineers to apply formal verification technology to a complex microprocessor design. This includes techniques for decomposing the complex microprocessor verification problem into a set of verification conditions that the engineers can formulate, and proof strategies to automate the proof of the verification conditions. This methodology was used to formally verify a core set of eleven AAMP5 instructions representative of several instruction classes. The core set did not include floating point instructions. Although the number of instructions verified is small, the methodology and the formal machinery developed are adequate to cover most of the remaining AAMP5 microcode. The success of this project has lead to a sequel in which the same methodology is being reused to verify another member of the AAMP family of processors. Another key result was the discovery of both actual and seeded errors. Two actual microcode errors were discovered during development of the formal specification, illustrating the value of simply creating a precise specification. Both errors were specific to the AAMP5 and corrected prior to first fabrication. Two additional errors seeded by Collins in the microcode were systematically uncovered by SRI while doing correctness proofs. One of these was an actual error that had been discovered by Collins during testing of an early prototype but left in the microcode provided to SRI. The other error was designed to be unlikely to be detected by walkthroughs, testing, or simulation.
> The risk turns out to be that the newest version of the NV video > transmission software allows you to transmit video across the mbone > without a camera... any window or cursor-followed region will be happily > transmitted to the world... It is not obvious in ANY way that you are > actually transmitting any information... This is not true. Having played with the latest version of nv last night, trying to get Multicast to work with Linux 1.1.72, I can attest to the fact that nv does provide you with a clue that it is transmitting. First, the button on the bottom of the nv window will change between "click to start sending" and "click to stop sending", depending on the current state. Second, when you are transmitting, you should see your transmission in the nv session window, which displays all the video feeds currently in progress. Also, it is possible to configure everything such that nv will be started with the -recvOnly flag, in which case it wont even let you send video (our version of sd does this automatically). I don't think this is necessarily a program error or a program bug, although it is clearly an interface issue and possibly a clueless user not knowing what all these neat buttons do! -derek
Sounds a lot like some things I was discussing with some friends. Consider the following (going to use PGP for an example). A store sends out a catalogue via E-Mail at the start of the catalogue is the store's PGP public key (package obtained from ViaCrypt (plug) so legal for commercial use). The subscriber has a program that on choosing a selection from a menu is able to use the header to encrypt the selections, credit card number, and shipping instructions with the store's public key and sign it with the shopper's private key (Addison Fisher was discussing this sort of thing quite a few years ago, just now technology has (almost) caught up). The completed order is then sent to the store. Note that since the shopper just signed the message, it does not need the shopper's public key to extract the order, just to authenticate it if repudiated later, but the store's private key is needed to read it. Concerned that the header key is someone else's and the whole thing is a scam ? Call this 800 number and press 9 to get a voice mail certificate number (eight hex digits and built into PGP now). And the "Home Shopping MIME" will flash it every thirty seconds on the bottom of the screen. Spice will know the most popular by heart anyway. Of course this leads to the question of revoking a key that is compromised - obviously with the age-old tradition of a classified ad: "I will no longer be responsible for any debts incurred by..." - not so much a revocation as a divorce. Padgett
Recently, email@example.com wrote about Cellular One turning off roaming in NYC. A friend of mine, after reading the article had this response: Funny thing is the fact that the same people that are scanning the ESN are also getting that Credit Card number when you make the call. :) Hummm... guess that does not burn the cellular company... Caller Beware. - -abc [tuning out of NYC]
I'm also not sure where the real virus is. I have now received more copies of the "it's a hoax" message from well-meaning friends (and my own spouse) than the original "warning." We should also be careful about shouting too loudly that "There's no such thing as an e-mail virus!" As RISKS readers know, there are several perfectly workable ways of wreaking mayhem via e-mail, and "active" e-mail is such a seductively attractive concept that sooner or later some misguideded person will actually implement it (with inadequate safeguards), and then the fun will really begin. (Nat Borenstein has written a few papers about the idea of active e-mail, although his papers of course DO mention the glaring risks, and propose methods of implementing active e-mail reasonably safely, if anyone dared to.) Steve Summit firstname.lastname@example.org
After reading in RISKS about the supposed AOL virus, I logged on to my account to see if I had any mail. I didn't and I was pleased to find a button on my opening screen for e-mail information. I pushed it and found a very coherent explanation from the management of what can and cannot be done with e-mail and what to do if someone sends you a questionable file attachment. Now I just hope people bother to push the button and read the message. With luck, the AOL "Inoculation" has worked. Sue Forslev email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
A RISK uncovered here is the weakness of the underlying Data Model utilized by the phone company in question. Phone companies, in general, seem to have insisted on a business rule that requires that the telephone number itself also be the customers account number. If one were to make an entity-relationship model of this enterprise there would be several entity-types that utilize the same identifier. CUSTOMER-ACCOUNT, CUSTOMER, SERVICE-ACCESS, FRAME-ASSIGNMENT, are each expected to be uniquely identifiable by the telephone number. Overwhelmingly this is the case, but there are enough exceptions - multiple lines for one customer, people moving, etc. that it weakens the data model (or increases its complexity unnecessarily) that the business processes begin to suffer. What ought to be merely a change to a relationship between two entities, or perhaps a value change to an attribute, results in a change to the existence of the entity itself. I imagine, in the eyes of the Data Model, that when Russell Stewart moved - one CUSTOMER entity was deleted (or marked inactive) and another instance was created. No wonder they couldn't allocate the money properly! Each customer service rep probably has developed their own individual set of business rules to apply in the case of finding an appropriate instance of a CUSTOMER entity when the original one no longer exists.
In RISKS-16.63, Justin Wells confuses two different methods of paying for goods and services over the Internet. First, he talks about submitting credit card information via the FORMS interface supported by most recent Web browsers. Assuming both the client and server support some secure encryption mechanism, it is safe to transmit your credit card information over the Internet. The NetMarket Company, for which I work, is the first company to do secure encrypted commercial transactions via the Web, though several other companies are also providing this functionality now. Note that this is distinct from "digital cash". The scheme described above is simply a mechanism for transmitting your credit card information and is in fact not very different from simply calling a mail-order house on the phone and using your credit card. Okamoto and Ohta ["Universal Electronic Cash", Crypto '91] propose six properties for an "ideal" digital cash system. Of these properties, credit card transactions are neither private (anonymous or untraceable), transferrable (a merchant can't pay somebody else with your "credit" without a bank doing arbitrage), nor divisible (you can't "make change" with credit). Note that there are several competing digital cash standards under development at this very moment. Not all of these standards implement all of the features that Okamoto and Ohta outline in their paper. I fervently hope that we will end up with an "ideal" digital cash standard, but I am not hopeful. Hal Pomeranz, Engineering Project Leader, The NetMarket Company
German media's awareness about Telecom related crimes was raised significantly when International Herald Tribune reported on its front page earlier this week that "several thousands of German Telecom employees" are suspected to have participated in criminal activities which damaged German Telecom in the order of 500 million DM. According to this report, telephone lines were switched to service providers in areas such as Netherlands Antillas where services such as astrologic reports (horoscopes) and taped sex conversations are regularly offered at high prices (up to 12 DM/minute); such services are usually announced in German boulevard newspapers on specific pages. Income from such telephone calls is usually divided between German Telecom which bills it's resp. international tariff, and the related PTT (e.g. NL-Antillas PTT) which subtracts its tariff from the amount sent and distributes the rest to the service provider. This trade between the PTTs is calculated by counting the *total volume of connect time* between related Telecoms. This implies that Telecom pays more to another PTT than it can charge to individual customers if some pirates succeed to generate communication between PTTs even when a real connection was NOT established, or with other criminal tricks. In cases reported by Herald Tribune, Telecom employees and service providers worked together to generate a significant volume of communication. Such procedures are a modern version of earning real money with "virtual communication" :-) As German media (with few exemptions) are not well informed about details of Telecom procedures and systems, much noise was generated, where some "experts" (e.g. a misinformed member of the Chaos Computer Club :-) said that hackers may have hacked Telecom computers (which is nonsense, both in the sense of telephone hacking=phreaking and computer hacking). While Telecom admitted that investigations were underway (one day later, 2 Telecom employees and 1 service provider were jailed, being accused with having damaged German Telecom in the order of 2 million DM), spokesmen immediately rejected that damage be in the order of 500 million DM. More cases are evidently underway (both in jailing and reporting :-). Since some time, public is growingly concerned about Telecom bills as steadily growing numbers of Telecom customers complain about unexpectedly high telephone bills. With estimated 600,000 customers (of 35 mio private customers) complaining this year, and a roughly estimated mean damage of 1,000 DM (as many customers report too high figures over months, with single bills adding to over 200,000 DM!), the *overall damage for private customers* may sum up to about 600 million DM! Despite of some recent damages to enterprise switching systems, discussion concerning potential economic damage has not reached the media so far. Unfortunately, German telecom customers so far cannot control their bills amount and so argue whether they really connected to such service providers. Different from other technically advanced countries, German customers receive monthly bills with *sums of telephone units and the total price which they have to pay*. This is a relic from ancient technologies when units were counted in electromechanical counters whose actual figures were photographed for documentation purposes; the photos of a new and the last month were compared to calculate the difference as the basis of the new bill. Since some time, digital switching systems (esp. Siemens' EWSD and Alcatel' S12) are installed in most regional switching offices (Vermittlungsstellen), where a log-record is stored for each call containing all essential billing data. While German Telecom only recently offered to list details of each telephone call if customers apply for this service and pay a monthly price in the order of 10 DM), a federal parliament's commission (Petitionsausschuss) recently suggested to the ministry of Telecommunications that detailed bills should be given and that such service should be free of a fee (as e.g. in US and Canada). Presently, a growing number of customers are seeking legal help against such Telecom bills. In few cases, courts (assisted by technical expertises about potential faults and points-of-attacks) have sentenced the bills as irregular. As in many cases of digital technologies, complexity of Telecom networks has grown so rapidly that new risks have appeared, e.g. in software and management of complex switching systems. In several cases, software bugs were not detected in Telecom's very detailed test process; in one case, billing records were store doubly, which was only detected "in the field". Management of such systems has never been analysed for any reasonable "quality" (even an ISO 9000-based analysis which is not very adequate would lead to improvements). In cases of growingly complex systems with growing bugs and management faults, more customer protection is needed. As customers are rarely able to relate overly high bills to technical problems of any kind, it should belong to the professional duties of related experts and their organisations (international as IFIP; national as ACM, BCS, GI/Germany, IEEE) to provide expertise for the public in cases such as Telecom criminality (from which side whatsoever). This may also help to produce better insight of public media about technologies. Klaus Brunnstein (Dec.10,1994)
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