The RISKS Digest
Volume 16 Issue 71

Thursday, 5th January 1995

Forum on Risks to the Public in Computers and Related Systems

ACM Committee on Computers and Public Policy, Peter G. Neumann, moderator

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A Whole Bunch of Date-Time Stuff
Fred Ballard
Paul Robinson
John Cavanaugh
Dave Moore
Chuck Karish
Jerry Leichter
Richard Schroeppel
Craig Everhart
Erann Gat
Wayne Hayes
Walt Farrell
Stanley F. Quayle
Marc Horowitz
Peter Capek
Lars Wirzenius
Phil Rose
David Jones
Jonathan I. Kamens
Andrew W Kowalczyk
Barry Jaspan
Joe Morris
Lord Wodehouse

Adopting Programming Improvements

Fred Ballard <>
05 Jan 95 00:08:23 EST
I'm glad to see (and embarrassed as well) that, as Walter Murray describes in
RISKS-16.70, ANSI COBOL addressed the problems I described with COBOL dates in
RISKS-16.69 in the 1985 standard.

He further says that, "Now it's up to COBOL programmers to learn and start
using what the language provides."

That brings me to the subject of how fast improvements are actually adopted.
I attended a meeting where Gerald Weinberg (author of _The Psychology of
Computer Programming_, among many other excellent books) spoke.  He told a
story illustrating how long it takes to introduce improvements.  It was
determined in the nineteenth century that surgeons could drastically reduce
the mortality rate among their patients by washing their hands before
operations.  It took a full generation of surgeons from the older, who
couldn't be bothered, to the younger, who wouldn't do it any other way, for
the improvement to find widespread use.  (What's really frightening is a
radio story I just heard on a children's burn unit in Russia that mentioned
a doctor there who could not be persuaded to wash his hands between
examining patients' dressings.)

All in all, I think we face the same thing in computer programming.  (For
instance, in my case, although I'm not currently using COBOL, I should have
checked a current manual before commenting.  Should the opportunity arise, I
will welcome and use the improvements.)  I'm pessimistic about wide
improvements in programming techniques and how fast they spread to
programmers in information systems software and applications.  I'll give
some examples:

o In the area of reuse (and sticking with dates), in the 4GL I use, the
ADDATE function correctly adds to and subtracts from dates before its epoch
date, but allowed arithmetic operations (addition and subtraction) on the
same dates fail.

o In program control, because the 4GL formerly lacked a generalized loop
structure, GOTOs had to be used to construct them and were also used to code
spaghetti bowls of code throughout the 1980s and 1990s, ignoring the
precepts of structured programming introduced at least as early as 1968.

o The use of modularization is haphazard; in one instance, a manager
dismissed the coupling and cohesion of structured design from the early
1970s as impenetrable.  (Well, actually he said he never got it and didn't
want to get it.)

o Code inspections, programming teams, and software metrics are never used
or even mentioned.

o Data hiding has been impossible in the 4GL because all variables have had
global scope.  When local variables were introduced in the current version,
they can only be automatically allocated variables whose use is restricted
in many commands.  Most programmers haven't missed local variables and
welcome everything being global.

o Object-oriented development is viewed as a distant, experimental

>From what I've seen, most of the improvements in programming from the last
quarter century of computing science are still viewed as tentative innovations:
usually unexplored, unknown, or unused.

Mea Culpa!

Paul Robinson <>
Thu, 05 Jan 1995 03:23:19 -0500 (EST)
As too many people have informed me, in regards to the message regarding
dates and times, Unix (and the C language) return the number of seconds
since 1970 as the date field.

  [... and POSIX and Standard C systems, etc.  This was noted, in many
  messages NOT included in RISKS, including those by (among others), (Chuck Karish) (Jeremy Epstein)
    Marc Horowitz <marc@MIT.EDU>,
    "Barry Jaspan" <>, (L. Scott Emmons), (Jay Ashworth)
  Just for kicks, I surveyed the 30 messages that were candidates for
  this issue, and 10 of the DATE: fields had two-character fields.  PGN]

Someone else informed me that under VM, one can issue a form of the DIAG
instruction and get the time since a certain epoch.  (There is an issue
here which the person who pointed it out to me may be unaware of;  DIAG is
a privileged instruction if you were running under anything EXCEPT VM, so
the only place you can use that instruction is for stuff that runs in
machine emulation.)

Someone else informed me that in assembly language on a Decsystem 20, you
can get the date and the time in a single call.  I neved used assembly on
a DEC 20, so I was unaware of this.

Someone else pointed out that my comparison on a 386 DX 40 isn't quite the
same as conditions on other computer systems because a 386/40 is a
relatively recent development in what is available for the average person,
e.g. the old mainframe computers used to only accept batch jobs and a job
might take hours or {days} to run.  I remember my days of punching jobs on
cards some twelve or fifteen years ago, and waiting 20 minutes to 1/2 an
hour for a job to complete.  Cheap terminal access made card punch access

Re: Year 2000 date problems already happening now

John Cavanaugh <>
Thu, 29 Dec 1994 12:30:04 -0600 (CST)
Indeed, year 2000 date problems have already been happening for quite
some time.  The first report I remember seeing was in a Computerworld
article in 1975, when some programs that did projections 25 years ahead
started failing.

John Cavanaugh, Minnesota Supercomputer Center, Inc., 1200 Washington Ave. S
Minneapolis, MN  55415  +1 612 337-3556

Re: Dates in a 4GL

Dave Moore <>
Wed, 4 Jan 1995 09:56:20 -0500 (EST)
I just wanted to point out that this system of time storage will differ
from World Time (UTC) by the number of leap seconds prior to the stored
time.  Currently this is 10 or 11 seconds.  The most recent leap second
was added the end of June 94.  I expect that most non-real-time
applications don't care about 10+ seconds.  However it's interesting to
note that the internal storage is in milliseconds.  This difference can
become quite critical in real-time applications.

Re: Dates and Times Not Matching in COBOL

Chuck Karish <>
4 Jan 1995 22:52:34 GMT
>This sort of issue pops up so rarely that it's not something one thinks
>about much.  In fact, a lot of reports print date only, so the time doesn't
>matter one way or the other.

And this is exactly why we discuss this sort of issue in RISKS: because
people don't think about this sort of issue much.  As a buyer of computing
services, are you happy to have a bug report answered with "Aw, that almost
never happens!"?  Or maybe "Nobody cared much thirty years ago; why worry

Chuck Karish   Mindcraft, Inc.  415 323 9000 x117

Date and time

Jerry Leichter <>
Wed, 4 Jan 95 18:04:40 EDT
In a recent RISKS, Paul Robinson makes two points I'd like to disagree with.

The first is minor.  Mr. Robinson lists a variety of operating systems, all of
which he says return the date and time separately, thus leaving programs open
to the danger that, if they sample across a midnight boundary, they may get
a time from one day and a date from another.  All the OS's he lists are rather
old.  All versions of Unix since the very beginning have returned, on request,
a unified date/time value, represented as the number of seconds since a fixed
time (in 1970).  Even the usual ASCII converted date/time routine returns a
string containing both time and date.

Similarly, VMS, since it was first introduced, has used a unified date/time
value, this time a (64-bit) value indicating 100-nanosecond "ticks" since a
fixed time (in 1858).

While I don't have the appropriate documentation here to check, I'd bet that
such recent designed systems as Windows NT and OS/2 also use a combined

He is right about MSDOS, however.  Once a toy, always a toy.

The second point is more significant, even if the particular application is
trivial.  He points out that the problem can only arise if the program happens
to execute the first of the call in a short period of time just before mid-
night - a period determined by the time needed to issue the two calls one
after another.  He estimates, then measures, this interval, and computes the
fraction of 24 hours that it represents.  This fraction he claims is the
probability of seeing the bug.

Probabilistic arguments can sound very convincing, but are all too often very
poorly made - so poorly made as to be essentially meaningless.  This argument
is an example of that class.  What Mr. Robinson has calculated is the proba-
bility that a program which runs at times evenly distributed throughout the
day will happen to get caught by such a bug.  However, I submit that there are
almost no programs with this property.  Many programs are much more likely to
run during the day than near midnight; many never run at midnight at all.
They will have essentially no chance of seeing a problem.  On the other hand,
there exist programs that regularly run near midnight - programs that roll
files over for the new day, for example.  Their probability of seeing the
problem are much, much higher - though without more information, it's impos-
sible to estimate the real probability.

Probabilistic arguments look strong because they look so objective.  However,
there's often a great deal of subjectivity in estimating the underlying dis-
tributions on which the calculations are based.  We need only recall the
orders of magnitude that distinguished the Intel and IBM estimates of the
probability of running into the Pentium divide bug.  Intel assumed the divi-
sors and dividends were chosen at random from all possible 64-bit values.  IBM
made various assumptions, such as that the divisors and dividends were the
best representations of numbers that, in decimal, had one digit before and
two digits after the decimal point.  There are completely different distribu-
tions, and the resulting "objectively calculated" probabilities are wildly
different.  Which is "right"?  Both, and neither.  Both correctly describe a
possible use of a Pentium.  Neither exactly describes any likely real set of
calculations performed by any real Pentium user.  Which one is more useful?
Ah, well that all depends on what you are trying to do.

Finally, I'll point out that the underlying problem - of accurately reading a
field that cannot be accessed atomically - recurs at multiple levels.  Many
contemporary chips provide a 64-bit hardware-updated clock, but can only
access its value 32 bits at a time.  Reading such a clock requires care!
Leslie Lamport published an algorithm a couple of years back - essentially
the trick that others have mentioned, of reading high order, then low order,
then high order again, and retrying if the high order bits changed - that can
be proved to get the correct time without requiring interlocking.  The proof
is non-trivial.
                            — Jerry

  [And don't forget the delightful old SRI stuff, which Lamport, Shostak,
  Pease, Rushby, and others have contributed to, showing that the
  old-faithful three-clock fault-tolerant algorithms do not work under
  Byzantine fault modes; you need FOUR clocks!  PGN]

Getting Date & Time in synch

"Richard Schroeppel" <>
Wed, 4 Jan 1995 16:32:59 MST
Walter Murray <>:
  Fred Ballard pointed out the risk of a COBOL program running near midnight...

I used it in 1969 in assembly code written under ITS, which had separate
Date and Time calls.  I think I read about it in Datamation.

At the hardware level, the manual for the IBM 360 discussed (in 1965) the
64-bit clock, a new feature of the architecture.  The clock was represented
as two 32bit words in memory, and was automatically updated by the hardware,
every X microseconds.  The application programmer might read the clock value
while the hardware was propagating a carry to the high word, and the program
would see mismatched upper & lower data.  The manual promised that, if you
used a certain Move instruction to read the clock, the hardware would hold
off clock ticks while the Move completed.  Moreover, the same promise applied
if you were Moving a new value into the clock memory.

This problem's been around a long time.

Rich Schroeppel

Re: Dates and Times Not Matching in COBOL (Robinson)

Thu, 5 Jan 1995 10:57:44 -0500 (EST)
I have to interpret this line of reasoning as having been intended to draw
flames--if not by Mr. Robinson, then by our beloved editor/moderator.  I can
make the Pentium analogy as well as most folks, and this one is far easier
to understand.

One of the big reasons for the RISKS list effort is to allow us to
understand what we're buying in to when we allow machines to do our work for
us.  To the extent that we trust machines to do the right thing, we had
better see to it that they do.  To the extent that we cannot trust such
machines, we need to be aware of the likelihood of problems, and adjust our
trust accordingly.

There are so many time-based calculations going on all the time, that it
boggles the mind to imagine the impact of this carelessness.  So many of
these calculations are embedded so deeply that you'll never bother to
verify them.

So what if you're charged for another day of rent, even for an expensive
object?  So what if you're charged another day's interest on money?  Or
so what if it happens, as long as it's not likely to happen to you but
rather to somebody else?

(What is wrong with this attitude?)

I'm reminded of a story told me by a buddy some time around 1974, wherein he
had labored hard and long to isolate the cause of a machine freeze-up that
hit his timesharing system (a Sigma, I think) once every few days.  He had
finally traced the problem to a race condition that would have been solved
by inverting the order of two machine instructions.  Upon reporting this to
the manufacturer's engineers, they answered with ``but that problem will
almost never happen, so it's not worth fixing,'' regardless of the periodic
machine freezes that it had in fact caused.


Re: Dates and times not matching in COBOL

Erann Gat <>
Wed, 4 Jan 95 19:06:13 PST
140 J = 0 : T1$=TIME$ : D1$=DATE$
150 T$=TIME$ : D$=DATE$
160 J = J+1 : IF T$=TIME$ THEN 160

Paul Robinson <> writes:

> ... but how many people worry about an error that *might* happen
> once every 16.9 years?

A lot of Pentium users were pretty upset about a bug that was purported
to turn up only every 27,000 years.  Paul's blase attitude about this
problem is particularly ironic in light of the fact that his BASIC
benchmark program contained a bug:

140 J = 0 : T1$=TIME$ : D1$=DATE$
150 T$=TIME$ : D$=DATE$
160 J = J+1 : IF T$=TIME$ THEN 160
                               ^^^ Should be 150

I didn't check the Pascal version.

Erann Gat

Re: Dates and Times Not Matching in COBOL (Robinson)

Wayne Hayes <>
Wed, 4 Jan 1995 18:09:17 -0500
Once ever 16.9 years *per computer*.  That means that with just 17
computers, the error *might* occur once per year.  17000 computers, and it's
probably happening once a day somewhere in the world.  Obviously it's not,
though, otherwise we would've heard about it sooner, but that's not the

The point is program correctness.  This is a trivial problem to fix, and so
it should be fixed.  The low probability of it happening will be little
consolation when your VISA card gets 2 months worth of interest rather than
just 1, or the life support system issues an overdose because it finds a
discrepancy of 86,399 seconds between two readings occurring 1 second apart,
at midnight.

  [There were numerous comments on the 16.9-ness monster, a few of which
  are included for diversity.  Others, omitted here, include those from
    Duncan Booth <>,
    "Stanley F. Quayle" <>,
    "Jonathan I. Kamens" <>
    "Peter Capek 914-784-6721" <>
       the last three of whom noted the Intel similarities
       (e.g., once in 27,000 years).  PGN]

Dates and Times Not Matching in COBOL

"Walt Farrell" <wfarrell@VNET.IBM.COM>
Thu, 5 Jan 95 09:41:22 EST
IBM's MVS and its predecessors (at least for the last 20-25 years) have always
returned the date and time in a single system call.  Whether the COBOL
compiler has made that information available in one call is another question.
But when the system's TIME service is used, you can get both the time and the
date with one invocation.

Paul further detailed some experiments he ran to see how severe the problem
might be of having a program running that makes two requests, one just
before midnight and the other just after midnight.  His conclusion, for a
program written in Pascal, was that:

> ... but how many people worry about an error that *might* happen
>once every 16.9 years?

I'm afraid this conclusion ignores the multi-programming aspects of today's
systems.  When multiple programs are running, one program may be suspended
by the operating system to service a program with a higher priority.  It's
conceivable that a program might be suspended for several seconds (or even
minutes if it has a very low priority and the system is running many
programs of higher priority) such that the first request could occur well
before midnight, then the program would be suspended until after midnight.

  — Walt

RE: Dates and Times Not Matching in COBOL

"Stanley F. Quayle" <>
Thu, 05 Jan 1995 10:46:36
I've done a lot of process control work, and while I'd *NEVER* use COBOL for
such an application, it's important to eliminate windows of failure.  Why
live with Murphy's Law when you can prevent it?

Stanley F. Quayle  Scriptel Holding Inc.  4145 Arlingate Plaza, Columbus, OH
43228  +1 614 276-8402

Re: Dates and Times Not Matching in COBOL (Robinson)

Marc Horowitz <marc@MIT.EDU>
Thu, 05 Jan 1995 00:15:37 EST
You're using a reasonably modern PC, which is, relatively speaking, a really
fast machine.  I've used timesharing machines which were so overloaded that
simple jobs took hours.  I wouldn't be at all surprised to find out that
seconds or even minutes elapsed between "consecutive" date and time
requests.  This is still unlikely, but I wouldn't stake my million-dollar
application on it.

1/6200 is also substantially more likely than the 1/10^9 which is
often cited for "critical" applications.


Date and Time not matching... (2)

"Peter Capek (TL-863-6721)" <>
Thu, 5 Jan 95 01:47:13 EST
The Rexx programming language includes separate built-in functions for
obtaining the date and time.  However, the defined semantics for these is
that the first call to either within a clause (informally: statement) causes
a record to be made which is then used for ALL calls to these functions
within that clause.  Hence, if multiple calls to DATE and/or TIME are made
in a single clause, they are guaranteed to be consistent with one another.
             Peter Capek

Split up date and time calls vs an atomic operation (Robinson)

Lars Wirzenius <>
Thu, 5 Jan 1995 15:32:31 +0200
Paul Robinson suggested in RISKS-16.70 that COBOL has separate statements
for getting the date and time "[b]ecause most operating systems separate the
request for time from the request for date".

To me, this indicates that most operating systems have not been designed
with reliability in mind (or if they have, then they are buggy in this
regard).  One example of an operating system that does provide the date and
time of day in a single call is Unix; it's interface has been copied to the
C language.  Even when the operating system does not provide an atomic time
call, it's not a good idea for a language to _mandate_ the split calls,
since this always puts the burden on the language user.  In C, for instance,
if the operating system does not support an atomic call, the time() function
can hide this by using a "do { get date1; get time; get date2; } while
(date1 != date2);" loop as suggested by an earlier RISKS entry.  The C
programmer then gets an atomic operation anyway.  This is the approach to
take for all systems and languages, and I'm glad to hear the COBOL now does
take it.

In addition to the race condition introduced by separate date and time of
day calls in an operating system, remember that if the operating system
returns the date, then it must know something of calendars.  A very simple
understanding of the Gregorian calendar is simple to code (one needs a table
containing the lengths of months, and a simple formula that tells whether a
year is a leap year).  Even so, there are a lot of programs that can't
handle it correctly.  A more complete understanding of calendars in general
(not just the Gregorian one) would need a lot more code, which is better
kept outside the kernel.  I think the Unix design, where the kernel keeps
track of some universal time and the programs convert this into dates and
local time as they wish, is the best solution.  (finger
Publib version 0.4:

re Dates and Times not matching (Robinson)

Phil Rose <>
Thu, 5 Jan 95 14:30:34 GMT
One more example: ICL's VME provides them.

Surely that's the whole point about RISKS: Yes, it mayn't happen very often,
but will do so and in safety critical situations will probably do so at the
most dangerous time. (Sodd's law aka Murphy's law)

Anyway, Mr Robinson's analysis overlooks one important fact - jobs do not
always run randomly. If I set a job to start at 5 minutes to midnight to do
some housekeeping or such and it tends to run for 4 min 59.9 secs +/- 0.1
sec before reading the date and time it is probably much more likely to fall
over this problem than if I set it off to run randomly after I go home. It's
a problem with reliability calculations - they tend to assume life is

Phil Rose G3ZZA

Atomic time/date access

Robinson <David Jones <<>
Thu, 5 Jan 1995 11:11:32 -0500
The Unix gettimeofday() and AmigaDOS CurrentTime() calls return both time
and date.  Both these systems combine time and date into a single 32-bit
number (which has other problems, which I'll get to later).

He then goes on to estimate the probability of a time/date rollover error
by running tests on GW-BASIC on a MS-DOS machine.  This environment allows
reasonably well-controlled execution time behavior.  In contrast, heavily
loaded Unix systems short on real memory may swap your program out between
the time and date instructions, leading to a window of vulnerability much
larger than the 1/3023 s window that he gives.

Unix isn't completely off the hook.  Most systems use a signed integer for
time/date values.  The highest value that can be stored in such an integer
is 2^31-1, which corresponds to Mon Jan 18 22:14:07 2038 EST.  So Unix gives
us another 38 years.

David Jones, M.A.Sc student, Electronics Group (VLSI), University of Toronto
           email:, finger for PGP public key

Re: Dates and Times Not Matching in COBOL (Robinson)

"Jonathan I. Kamens" <>
Thu, 5 Jan 1995 12:16:53 -0500
From the start, the UNIX concept of time has been the elapsed time since
January 1, 1970, the "UNIX system time".  Any UNIX program which needs to
get the current time or the current date from the system does so by first
asking for the UNIX system time (using time(3) (time(2) on older systems) or
gettimeofday(2) and then using a UNIX library function to convert it into
the appropriate human-interpretable data (current date, current time, etc.).
The operation of getting the UNIX system time is atomic, and always has

Just so that people don't think I'm claiming that UNIX was the first to get
this right, I'll point out that Multics had similar functionality — a
function for getting the current system time as a 72-bit binary number,
functions for converting that number into human-readable representations,
and a function for converting a human-readable date string into such a
72-bit binary number.

Just so that people don't think I'm claiming that no one has gotten it
right since UNIX, I'll point out that MacOS uses the same concepts,
although it has the different problem of assuming that the system time
is always local time (i.e., it has no concept of time zones).

The fact that the current date and the current time are intertwined
and should not be treated separately by an operating system trying to
achieve reliability is not new knowledge, and the technology to "do it
right" is not new technology.  Just because COBOL and DOS got it wrong
doesn't mean that we should live with it being done wrong.

Jonathan Kamens  |  OpenVision Technologies, Inc.  |

COBOL date at midnight issue (Ballard)

Andrew W Kowalczyk <>
Thu, 5 Jan 95 11:27 EST
Regarding Fred Ballard's suggestion of bracketing the time of day inquiry
between two date inquiries.

In the various large organizations I have worked for I have never seen a
"production" "batch" program that relies on the system date for any
processing decisions or calculations.  Nearly all programs use a "run date"
which is entered as a parameter or is in a common file read by all programs
that need a date.

Besides addressing the "after midnight" problem it also allows retroactive
processing when problems happen or anticipatory runs to spread out workloads
or compensate for postal delays.

Of course there is the problem of entering the wrong control date. A clever
approach is to utilize the system date as a reasonableness check on the
entered control date (this would be especially likely to catch the common
error we all commit of not incrementing the year digits in our head until
sometime in February :) )

As we replace these old systems with real time client-server
systems then the use of system date and time becomes more
enticing - but then we confront the headache of which clock to
use on a network of processors.

Also a potential risk in relying on programming language
facilities that return the date and time in a single request -
how do we know that the language implementors have applied Fred
Ballard's carefulness to the extraction - as Paul Robinson points
out: most of the underlying operating systems would require
separate calls.

Andy Kowalczyk  Allstate Life Insurance Company - Direct Response
3100 Sanders Road  Suite N3A  Northbrook, IL 60062-9266 voice: (708)402-4457

Re: Dates and Times Not Matching in COBOL (Robinson)

"Barry Jaspan" <>
Thu, 5 Jan 95 12:33:00 EST

Paul is missing one of the basic lessons of RISKS (even though he states the
source of the problem): the coupling of seemingly unrelated events.  The
probability distribution of the time of day at which jobs run is not flat.
There are a LOT of batch jobs out there in the world that run automatically
at "midnight."  This bug will almost certainly occur eventually, probably
already has, and with a frequency much higher than once every 16.9 years.
Maybe it will even happen on the A320 he is flying in...


Dates and times (Robinson, RISKS-16.70)

Joe Morris <>
Thu, 05 Jan 1995 13:11:19 -0500
MS-DOS certainly has the problem, but OS/360 and its successors (including
MVS) don't.  I can't speak for the other systems cited.

In the OS/360 world, the time and date have always been available in the
single operating system call SVC 11 (optionally through the TIME macro).
Time is returned in GPR0; date in GPR1.  Optionally, on S/370 and later
systems the program can use the SVC 11 call to obtain the 64-bit TOD clock
and do its own conversion to date-and-time.  (The TOD clock, maintained by
the hardware, gives time from 0000 hours 1 January 1900 and is the datum
from which all time and date information on the system are derived.)

Of course, none of this makes any difference if the language in use doesn't
provide a mechanism for the application to retrieve both time and date
returned by the same OS invocation.

Joe Morris / MITRE

Midnight rollover risks

Lord Wodehouse <>
Thu, 5 Jan 1995 11:02:12 +0000 (GMT)
As much as the various contributors who have worked to show that the chances
of a problem with the time/date at midnight are less than 1 in 10*6 in any
one day, I am afraid that if one was depending on the software to fly a 747,
that would not be a great comfort!

However I have seen a wonder example of such a problem with a large VAX
cluster of six machines. The batch subsystem and job controller runs on all
the CPUs. Jobs set to run at midnight will be started by the first machine
to reach midnight and to schedule the job. However the job may well not run
on that machine, but on another. If the clocks are not in step and they
_never_ are, that machine may resubmit the job to run the next midnight. The
result - well as opposed to one job running once at midnight, you can end up
with lots of them and unless the code handles this, the data files can
become interesting. As machines get faster, the jobs can run quicker, so the
window for such a problem becomes more significant. With an old 11/750,
getting the job to start might take seconds, while a 6660 it might take less
than 1/100th of a second. So with the 11/750 cluster. the clocks can be a
few seconds adrift, while with 6660's, that margin is much smaller.

Lord John - The Programming Peer  +44 181 966 2109

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