The Risks Digest

The RISKS Digest

Forum on Risks to the Public in Computers and Related Systems

ACM Committee on Computers and Public Policy, Peter G. Neumann, moderator

Volume 18 Issue 18

Thursday 6 June 1996

Contents

o L-vis Lives in Virtual TV
PGN
o Another Java attack
David Hopwood
Marianne Mueller
o FORTRAN and heat exchangers
Thomas Koenig
o Ariane 5 failure
Ralphe Neill
John Rushby
David Wood
o Ariane Explosion - Positive Aspects
Richard Butlin
o RAL loses satellite cluster to Ariane Five
Philip Overy
o Accidental shooting down of F-15 revisited
Chiaki Ishikawa
o College Paper Sued Over Quote
Paul W. Wisneskey
o Pornography and throughput?
Andrew Koenig
o Re: Cyber-terrorists blackmail banks and financial institutions [Identity withheld by request]
o Fourth ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security
M.K. Reiter
o Info on RISKS (comp.risks)

L-vis Lives in Virtual TV

"Peter G. Neumann" <neumann@chiron.csl.sri.com>
Thu, 6 Jun 96 8:06:25 PDT
L-Vis (Live Video Insertion System) allows arbitrary images to be
superimposed on television pictures (for example, for advertising purposes)
but without those images appearing to live audiences or on instant replays.
The Princeton Video Image system "uses missile guidance technology and a
customized computer" to insert electronic billboards in the viewer-perceived
program.  The computer system recognizes familiar patterns (such as the wall
behind home plate in a baseball stadium) and automagically inserts the
desired logo or other graphic in the specified location.  The image is
logically removed whenever it would in the real world be physically obscured
from camera view (e.g., by a batter or umpire).  [Source: *San Francisco
Chronicle*, 6 Jun 1996, p. A1 and A13.]

Subliminal advertising was tried in movies back in the 1950s.  This is
perhaps more insidious, because you can no longer tell what is real and what
is virtual.  Added icons of virtual victuals depicting the sponsor's
products all over the ball park -- perhaps even on the pitched balls, with
adjustments for spin?  The label on the Cincinnati Reds' owner's favorite
beverage transformed into the sponsor's label, or Schottzie overlayed as a
pit bull?  Think how the TV producers could alter Chicago Bulls' Dennis
Rodman's appearance (pet bull?), dynamically color coordinating to adapt to
the arena surroundings.  Signs visible to the live audience (such as "Smoke
El Hempos") could be transformed appropriately (e.g., "DON'T Smoke El
Hempos") for the TV audience, to satisfy an emerging FCC broadcast
regulation against tobacco.  L-vis has absolutely glorious RISKS-related
possibilities, such as when the pattern recognizer indentifies something
that unexpectedly happens to match the given rules.  A contradictory message
might get added to the sponsor's message, or an obscenity might emerge as an
inadvertent juxtaposition of symbols.  Stay tuned for more excitement
appearing in RISKS on this one!  PGN


Another Java attack

David Hopwood <david.hopwood@lady-margaret-hall.oxford.ac.uk>
Sun, 2 Jun 1996 07:46:20 +0000 (BST)
There is another serious security bug in the class loading code for all
currently available Java browsers:

    Netscape up to versions 2.02 and 3.0beta4 (except Windows 3.x)
    Oracle PowerBrowser for Win32
    HotJava 1.0beta
    'appletviewer' from the Java Development Kit up to version 1.0.2

Sun, Netscape, and Oracle have been sent details of the problem (which is
partly related to the ClassLoader attack found by Drew Dean, et al. in
March).  The attack works by exploiting a design flaw in the mechanism that
separates JVM classes into different namespaces.

Using this bug, an attacker can bypass all of Java's security restrictions.
This includes reading and writing files, and executing native code on the
client with the same permissions as the user of the browser.

The only way to avoid this problem at the moment is to disable Java. For
more details see
    http://ferret.lmh.ox.ac.uk/~david/java/bugs/

Technical details will be posted when Sun, Netscape, and Oracle release
patches.

David Hopwood  david.hopwood@lmh.ox.ac.uk  http://ferret.lmh.ox.ac.uk/~david/


Another Java attack

Marianne Mueller <mrm@doppio.Eng.Sun.COM>
Thu, 6 Jun 1996 14:15:46 -0700
David Hopwood, a Java researcher in the UK, has uncovered a new security bug
in Java [RISKS-18.18].  In simple terms, he has been able to manipulate the
way objects are assigned and the way they collaborate, in order to undermine
the applet security manager.

Hopwood contacted JavaSoft directly re: the bug, and we have had a team
working on a fix for the past 72 hours.  In addition, we are applying
Hopwood's model to conduct a security review, to determine if there are
other bugs that may apply.

We are currently thoroughly testing the fix, and plan to release a patch as
soon as possible.  As we complete more testing of the fix, a more detailed
description of the bug and the fix will be added to the JavaSoft security
FAQ at http://java.sun.com/sfaq/.

JavaSoft is grateful for the internet security community's active interest
in reviewing our code and we welcome feedback that makes Java better
technology.


FORTRAN and heat exchangers

Thomas Koenig <ig25@fg70.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de>
5 Jun 1996 10:55:06 +0200
This is an old hat, but it still keeps coming up.

A co - worker of mine was doing experiments on a heat exchanger; he was also
modelling it with a FORTRAN (77) program that ran on a PC.

One dimensionless quantity used in heat-exchanger theory is the Nusselt
number, defined as

   Nu = alpha * l / lambda

(alpha is the heat transfer coefficient, l a characteristic length, and
lambda the thermal conductivity).

The name of the variable he chose was NU; he did not declare this variable,
so the FORTRAN compiler implicitly typed it as an integer.  Since the range
of NU was between 10 and 200, this introduced a maximum error of 10% to 0.5%
in his calculations - small enough not to be noticed immediately.  I don't
want to make a bet on how many commercial heat-exchanger design codes make
the same error.

Related is the "5/9" problem (this expression silently evaluates to
0 in FORTRAN and C), which often bugs translations of formulas by
hand into FORTRAN, which makes a**(5/9) equal to 1.

Some tools (notably ftnchek for FORTRAN 77) recognize this, and issue
a warning.  Unfortunately, these tools are not in wide use in the
scientific community.

   [NUsseltov!  PGN]


Ariane 5 failure

Ralphe Neill <ran@rdt.monash.edu.au>
Thu, 6 Jun 1996 20:28:52 +0000
>From the "Electronic Telegraph" (UK Daily Telegraph) - June 6, 1996

      "A COMPUTER error swivelled the nozzles of Ariane 5's two
      giant boosters, sending Europe's most powerful rocket off
      course to its destruction, the European Space Agency said
      yesterday.  [...]
      "Investigators do not have to collect debris or hunt for a
      black box. Final analysis of what confused the guidance
      system will come from a study of the tapes that contain the
      telemetry messages that constantly reported the status of
      the launcher's computer and on-board systems. The data will
      be fed into computer simulators, run by Aerospatiale and
      CNES, the French space agency."

Given Aerospatiale's record with the Airbus, it'll be interesting to
see if they come up with "pilot error" as the cause! :-))

  [Also commented on by "Otto J. Makela" <otto@cc.jyu.fi> and
  Paul Ferguson <pferguso@cisco.com>.  PGN.]


Ariane 5 failure

John Rushby <RUSHBY@csl.sri.com>
Wed 5 Jun 96 14:54:47-PDT
>From cnn's web page www.cnn.com:

  Faulty computer blamed in Ariane rocket failure

     Experts studying the moments before the Ariane-5 rocket explosion
     say faulty computer software may be to blame for the rocket veering
     off course. Apparently, the rocket was misfed information that made
     it think it was not following the right path. The rocket then
     changed direction, causing the upper part to began to break apart.


The European Space Agency's little problem

David Wood <david@thermoteknix.co.uk>
Thu, 6 Jun 1996 08:46:31 +0100
After the European Space Agency's little problem this week and the reports
now filtering out that is was 'a computer error', it sounds more like a
sensor fault or a wiring fault.  (Apparently, the computer tried to correct
for what it thought was a disturbance to its trajectory and then set the
thrusters full over - one big disturbance or was it positive feedback).

Anyway, the ground controls hit the 'explode' button.

Why O why didn't the payload have a chute. After all it must have had
separator blasts. The 'abort and blow up' sequence could have consisted of a
'separate and chute' the payload stage followed by blow up the rest.

Didn't the early Apollo missions do this, or some other satellite launchers.

Is this complacency at work here.

What a risk - millions of (pounds, dollars, whatever - big in anyone's
currency) and all that work.

David Wood d.wood@thermoteknix.co.uk postmaster@thermoteknix.co.uk


Ariane Explosion - Positive Aspects

Butlin Richard <RMBUTLIN@farnboro01.datasci.co.uk>
Wed, 05 Jun 96 15:04:00 PDT
On 4 June 1996 the Ariane 5 prototype European space launcher veered off
course and was destroyed by its controllers 40 seconds after blast-off
(details from *The Guardian*, UK 5th June 1996). The launcher development
had cost UKP5bn (pounds sterling) and the explosion destroyed a UKP500M
four-satellite experiment to monitor the sun, and as the headline
says..."And It Wasn't Insured".

Leaving consideration of what went wrong until details emerge, it is worth
noting aspects that were successful or at least were not as poorly managed
as may appear. Firstly, there was no loss of life - the safety precautions
for destruction by ground control worked as planned (the TV pictures showed
the destruction happened within seconds of the off-course problems becoming
visible, suggesting that either data had already indicated problems or that
the controllers were remarkably responsive at pressing a pretty expensive
button). Secondly, the European Space Agency is in a risk taking business,
and the price of risk taking is occasional failure - Ariane 5 is the follow
on to existing Ariane rockets that bring the agency's commercial arm UKP666M
per year, with a waiting list valued at nearly UKP3.3bn. Thirdly, regarding
the financial losses, it is nigh on impossible to obtain insurance for test
flights, and the cargo was being flown for free (the scientists responsible
for the experiments didn't have the budget for a paying flight, so took the
risk of a prototype launch).

It is certain that there will be lessons from the investigation, but it is
worth noting that, but for some risk management at the high level, it could
have been much worse and that risks were recognised by the participants,
even if not adequately protected against.

Richard Butlin  Data Sciences UK  (rmbutlin@farnboro01.datasci.co.uk)


RAL loses satellite cluster to Ariane Five

Philip Overy <pjo33@mailbox.rl.ac.uk>
Wed, 05 Jun 1996 15:18:43 +0100
Although the uninsured satellite was carried on a free flight with known
risks that it wouldn't work right first time, I think we now know that
there's no such thing as a free launch.

Personally I think they should bring back Blue Streak.

Actually, as readers of the Airbus thread will know, I have a bias in favour
of the European aircraft industry - whether I would travel in a capsule on
Ariane Five is another matter, but I remember the quote about what either
John Glenn or Alan Shepherd thought about when waiting to launch ("the
rocket contains 5 million parts, all made by the lowest bidder" ,
approximately) so I suppose launch vehicles will inevitably be either
unreliable, or Bad Value For Money - so make sure your satellites are all
reproducible by CAD/CAM. And perhaps there should be a few more CASE and
automatic testing systems around?.

So for a change the risk is, there might not be enough computerisation?

Although I sign this stating where I work, this is very definitely my
personal opinion, not RAL's!!!, however the destruction of the rocket when
it went off course and tried to attack French Guiana made the national news
here: I don't think my bad publicity will equal what Ariane has had from the
press. The satellite design computer was attacked by organised hackers via
Sweden a month or so ago - perhaps this was an indication of how the Eastern
Bloc intends to prop up its launcher industry?. In any case, it's worth
bearing in mind that this sort of"navigation error" could easily creep in if
a virus or a hacker gets onto the development computers. Computer security
that's worth money isn't only confined to banks.

Phil Overy  Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, UK


Accidental shooting down of F-15 revisited (Re: RISKS-17.56)

Chiaki Ishikawa <ishikawa@personal-media.co.jp>
Wed, 5 Jun 1996 21:35:29 +0900 (JST)
Some of the readers of RISKS will recall that I reported an accidental
shooting down of an F-15 fighter plane by another F-15 during interception
training of the Japanese air force last December.

To refresh your memory, what happened was that
 - Two F-15 airplanes took place in an interception training.
 - One of the planes carried live missiles.
   The reason given was that the airplanes were routinely engaged in
   REAL interception missions and taking missiles off takes time.
   (BAD decision: They ought to have unload the live missiles in
    the first place.)
 - The main fire unit was supposed to be off (by turning off main switch).
 - However, somehow, it got turned on. (static electricity problem?)
 - Despite the visual cue on the main firing display console,
   which showed that the main firing system was ON and live,
   the pilot triggered the firing button, and launched a sidewinder
   missile against another F-15.
 - The F-15 was hit and destroyed. The pilot escaped by parachute.

The defense agency released its investigation report on the the
accident.  (I think it was released last week.)  Some newspapers had
articles following the release of the report, but they are all
sketchy. My conclusion after reading articles is this.

  - Yes, indeed, the main firing system was turned on. But, they could
    not determine the cause of the malfunction(!).

  - The report seemed to imply that the visual cue on the firing
    console ought to have alerted the pilot that the system was live
    and that the pilot should have taken notice and refrained from
    triggering the missile.
   (I think Japanese pilots have less live missile traing than, say,
    U.S., or Israel pilots, and so pilots may have tough time figuring
    out what the real operating modes are from complex computer
    display alone. Well, this is the reason they need training in the
    first place anyway, though.)

  - (To my disbelief) It was suggested some type of plastic cap be
    placed on the main trigger during future training missions to
    prevent pilots from triggering(!?).

Frankly speaking, I was pretty much dismayed at the depth of of the
investigation.  It didn't really go to the bottom of the malfunction.

The same hardware/software problem might persist in other F-15s in Japan.
(It was not clear whether same type of problems are ever reported before in
the U.S.A.. My understanding is that F-15s used in Japan are licensed and
manufactured in Japanese factories. But computer firing systems are often
brought in as is from U.S.A. as black boxes.)

The last low-tech solution to the prevention of triggering the missile
was almost comical.

Some conspiracy theorists could argue that the air force might want to hide
some mistakes during the manufacturing of Japanese version of F-15 by
shifting blame on the pilot. But I digress..

Now that the Japanese naval boat shot down a U.S. airplane off Hawaii,
I am interested how far the investigation of *THIS* accident goes and
what way. I hope they nail down the cause this time around.

Chiaki Ishikawa  Personal Media Corp.  Shinagawa, Tokyo, Japan 142
ishikawa@personal-media.co.jp


College Paper Sued Over Quote

"Paul W. Wisneskey" <pwwisnes@magenta.com>
Wed, 5 Jun 1996 08:01:02 -0400 (EDT)
>From the Roanoke Times (May 15th, 1996 edition):

> A Virginia Tech official failed to see any humor when a student
> newspaper erroneously listed her job title last month as "Director of
> Butt Licking.  Sharon Yeagle was so unamused she filed an $850,000
> defamation lawsuit...

> ...[The paper's] editors say the phrase was part of a computer system
> template never meant to be published.

The newspaper involved is the Collegiate Times, the student run paper of
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.  In an article on page
A6 of the April 30th edition, the paper ran an article about seven students
who were accepted into the Governor's Fellows Program.  In the center of the
article was a featured quote from Sharon Yeagle, an assistant to the vice
president of student affairs.

Unfortunately for the newspaper, the template used for the layout
contained a "humorous" title meant to be replaced.  Somehow the quote and
quotee were filled in but her title was never entered and the
placeholder, "Director of Butt Licking" was published instead.

And this is not the first time this has happened.  According to the
article in the Roanoke Times, in the Oct. 27th issue the phrase also
appeared.  However, that time an accurate quote was attributed to a false
name and a false title.

The risks?  If you're going to have a generic template, make it generic.
And if something bad happens once, it's going to happen again so fix it
after the first occurrence.  Personally, when I'm writing and need to
leave something to be completed later I always enter in a string of at
least five question marks.   It has become second nature for me to search
for that string before "committing" my writing.  And when I've forgotten,
it has resulted in some confusion but fortunately no lawsuits.

Paul Wisneskey  pwwisnes@magenta.com  http://magenta.com/~pwwisnes/


Pornography and throughput?

Andrew Koenig <ark@research.att.com>
Thu, 6 Jun 1996 09:36:09 +0400
In RISKS-18.15, Bob Morrell takes an assertion (cited from RISKS-18.13) that
a particular ISP would triple its throughput if it accepted alt.binaries and
parlays that into a claim that the Internet is mainly about pornography.
Occam's Razor suggests a more general explanation: Images contain much more
information than text, regardless of content.

Here is an example.  I am writing a book.  A picture will fill the front
cover; a smaller picture will appear on the back cover.  The publisher sent
me a JPEG file representing the front cover; that file is 252,368 bytes.
The file with the back-cover picture is 54,070 bytes.  Total: slightly more
than 306,000 bytes.

The entire text of the book (400 pages) is just under 695,000 bytes
[that is, excluding the covers].

In this case, a picture is worth much more than a thousand words.


Re: Cyber-terrorists blackmail banks and financial institutions

<[Identity withheld by request]>
Wed, 05 Jun 1996
<>    Personally, I view this story with marked scepticism. I have no
<>    doubt that it is true to a certain extent, but the idea of banks
<>    forking out ten million pounds (circa $14m [sic]) to a
<>    blackmailer is one I find slightly unrealistic.

I have in the past done computer security work for several large banking
institutions which everyone has heard of.  In my opinion, with respect to
the business case of choosing to pay blackmail or fix the problem, it is
cheaper to make a few blackmail payments than to protect an entire
multinational (or even single-nation) banking organization with strong
information security (cryptography, of course).  This is probably true even
with five "cyber terrorist" organizations operating, but this obviously does
not scale well.

This is, of course, disappointing (especially speaking as someone who might
attempt to make all that money legitimately designing security systems).
However, I don't find it surprising at all.  One blackmail payment of this
level approximates the daily operating expenses of one of these
organizations.  Consider this loss alone, ignoring the lost profits and
public relations nightmare, and you might pay the blackmail, too.

What these banks are surely not considering is that there are many other
advantages to strong information security.  Some bans are considering this,
but not quickly enough, IMHO.

I've believed for a long time that the people who need security most won't
do anything until they personally feel some intense pain.  (This is
analogous to the multitude of people who didn't believe in regular backups
until one of their disks crashed.)  If there was another Barings which
folded due to inadequate security instead of financial mismanagement, maybe
then the banking industry would do something real, and stop complaining at
how painful security was.  An ounce of prevention, and all that.

        Marc

   [I have some private reports suggesting that the story in RISKS-18.17
   is largely overhyped, but no complete denials at this time.  I hope
   someone will eventually set the record straight.  PGN]


Fourth ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security

"M.K. Reiter" <mkr23@newton.cam.ac.uk>
Wed, 5 Jun 1996 12:05:43 +0100
                       Call for Papers
    Fourth ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security
                     Zurich, Switzerland
                      April 2-4, 1997

                   Sponsored by ACM SIGSAC

Papers pertaining to all aspect of computer security are solicited for
submission to the Fourth ACM Conference on Computer and Communications
Security.  Papers may present theory, technique, applications, and practical
experience on a variety of topics including access control, accounting and
audit, applied cryptography and cryptographic protocols, authentication and
authorization, data/system integrity, electronic commerce, intrusion
detection, key management, privacy, protection of software and intellectual
property, run-time system security, secure networking, secure operating
systems, security architectures and models, security management, security of
distributed systems and databases, security protocols, and smart-cards and
secure PDAs.

Instruction for authors: Papers should be of high quality, original,
unpublished, and not submitted elsewhere.  Submit six (6) copies of your
paper (not exceeding 7500 words or 25 pages) to Clifford Neuman at the
address below in a form suitable for anonymous review (no author names,
affiliations, obvious references), with a cover letter indicating that your
paper is a submission for the ACM Conference on Computer and Communications
Security, and listing the authors names, email and postal addresses, phone
and fax numbers, and identifying the contact author.  Electronic, faxed, or
late submissions will be rejected without review.  Send also via email
bcn@isi.edu an online plain ASCII text version of your paper title,
abstract, and authors and contact information.  Where possible all further
communications to authors will be via email.

Paper submission: September 2, 1996
Acceptance decision: October 21, 1996
Final papers due: December 9, 1996

Steering Committee Chair:
Ravi Sandhu, George Mason University, USA

General Chairs:
Richard Graveman, Bellcore, USA
Phil Janson, IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, Switzerland

Program chairs:

Clifford Neuman (4th ACM CCS)
University of Southern California
Information Sciences Institute
4676 Admiralty Way
Marina del Rey, California 90292-6695
U.S.A.
Tel: +1 (310) 822-1511
Fax: +1 (310) 823-6714
Email: bcn@isi.edu

Li Gong
SRI International
Computer Science Laboratory
333 Ravenswood Avenue
Menlo Park, California 94025, U.S.A.
Email: gong@csl.sri.com

Awards chair: Jacques Stern, ENS/DMI, France
Publication chair: Tsutomu Matsumoto, Yokohama National University, Japan
Publicity chair: Michael Reiter, AT&T Research, USA

Program committee members:

Martin Abadi, DEC Systems Research Center
Carlisle Adams, Bell Northern Research
Hugo Krawczyk, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center
Arjen Lenstra, Bellcore
Mark Lomas, University of Cambridge
Wenbo Mao, HP Labs, Bristol, U.K.
Tsutomu Matsumoto, Yokohama National University, Japan
Xiaolei Qian, SRI International
Michael Reiter, AT&T Research
Avi Rubin, Bellcore
Karen Sollins, MIT
Stuart Stubblebine, AT&T Research
Jacques Stern, ENS/DMI, France
Gene Tsudik, USC Information Sciences Institute
Vijay Varadharajan, University of Western Sydney
Michael Waidner, IBM Zurich Research Laboratory
Raphael Yahalom, Hebrew University, Israel
Moti Yung, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center

For more information, access http://www.csl.sri.com/acm-ccs/ccs.html.

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