The RISKS discussion related to a zero-divide in an NT application on a Navy ship, that crippled the ship for some time. Scientific American finally caught up with the topic in November 1998 (www.sciam.com/1998/1198issue/1198techbus2.html), although the report added little new to what has appeared already in RISKS. Then in the March 1999 issue (which I have just received) there is a letter from Harvey McKelvey, former director of Navy programs for CAE Electronics, the firm which apparently built the misbehaving application (www.sciam.com/1999/0399issue/0399letters.html). McKelvey writes that the failure, "was not the result of any system software or design deficiency but rather a decision to allow the ship to manipulate the software to stimulate [sic] machinery casualties for training purposes and the 'tuning' of propulsion machinery operating parameters. In the usual shipboard installation, this capability is not allowed." McKelvey adds that CAE Electronics expressed "serious concern" when this test was proposed. So it seems that as long as there are no "machinery casualties", everything will be fine. Then again, the incident may have provided useful information to improve system robustness. Mike Martin <email@example.com>
Netfill, which provides access to pornographic Web sites, has apparently billed something like 900,000 credit-card numbers for services. Federal regulators claim that the owner, Kenneth H. Taves, has been squirreling millions of dollars in offshore banks. FTC officials have not yet determined how the numbers were acquired — perhaps he may have used a "number generating program"! [Source: *San Francisco Chronicle*, 4 May 1999, A3]
The Australian Securities & Investment Commission created a hoax Web site: http://www.smbi.com.au on April 1st this year. The site boasted that punters would triple their money if they invested their money in Millennium Bug Insurance. The site attracted $4 million worth of interest from people who were fooled by the web site. Only a few alerted ASIC that the company didn't seem legit. The site was designed to educate the public about the risks of investing in Internet ventures. Full Story at: http://www.theaustralian.com.au/index.asp?URL=/national/4291177.htm Pauline van Winsen, Senior Technical Consultant firstname.lastname@example.org eServ Pty Ltd http://www.eserv.com.au/people/pauline.html [Ah, yes, the adage seems to be, "If it has to do with the Internet, it must be worth investing in." PGN]
A certain "Johnny" has written to me from Microsoft because of my posting in RISKS-20.35 about MS bloat. The tone was a thinly disguised threat. In his opening, "Johnny" stated that the "bloat" of MS RegClean was due no doubt to having static links. Discussing the sweeping ramifications of such a statement is unnecessary here. The mind boggles, it is sufficient to state. The MSVC runtime is a mere 250,000 bytes and in fact is not statically linked anyway to MS RegClean, AFAIK [as far as I know]. MS RegClean is an MFC app and will by default use the dynamically linked MFC libraries. And even if its static code links were an overhead here they would add but a small fraction of the total bloat, say 40KB at most. For whatever reason, I decided to download the latest version of MS RegClean from BHS again and pluck it apart. This is what I found. I have tried - and it has been difficult - to keep subjective comments out of this report. Current Status of RegClean Version 4.1a Build 7364.1 ==================================================== Image Size (Unzipped and ready to run): 837,632 bytes (818KB) ============================================================= (Subjective comment removed.) Import Tables ============= The import section in the PE header. This gives an indication of just how (in)effective the use of Bjarne's C++ has been. In this case, the verdict is: "pretty horrible". A walloping 7,680 bytes are used for the names of the relocatable Win32 imports. These are the actual names of the functions (supposedly) called. MS RegClean does not call most of these functions - they remain because an MFC template was originally used, most likely borrowed from another application, and it was never "cleaned". This is corroborated by what is found among the "Windows resources": over half a dozen standard menus, assorted graphic images, print preview resources, etc. that have nothing to do with the application at hand. Resources ========= Please understand that resources not only bloat an executable with their own size, but with additional reference data, in other words the bloat factor of an unused or bad resource is always somewhat larger than the size of the bloating resource itself. Accelerators ============ Sixteen (16) unused accelerators from an MFC template were found: Copy, New, Open, Print, Save, Paste, "Old Undo", "Old Cut", Help, Context Help, "Old Copy", "Old Insert", Cut, Undo, Page Up, Page Down. MS RegClean uses only one accelerator itself, not listed here. Bitmaps ======= This was a particularly sorry lot. The main bloat here was a splash screen bitmap weighing in (no RLE compression of course) at over 150KB. Further, Ctl32 static library bitmaps were found, meaning MS RegClean is still linking with the old Ctl32v2 static library which was obsolete five years ago and which automatically adds another 41KB to the image size. Cursors ======= Six (6) cursors were found, none of which have anything to do with this application. Dialogs ======= A very messy chapter indeed. MS RegClean walks around with eighteen (18) hidden dialogs, of which only one or at the most two are ever used. The others are just - you took the words out of my mouth - junk. The findings (read it and weep): *) Eleven (11) empty dialogs with the caption "My Page" and the static text "Todo", all identical, all empty, and of course all unused. This is a wonder in and of itself. *) The main "wizard" dialog actually used by the application is left with comment fields to help the programmers reference the right controls in their code (subjective comment removed). *) A "RegClean Options" dialog which AFAIK is never used. *) A "New (Resource)" dialog, probably a part of the development process, just stuffed in the stomach at sew-up time and left there for posterity. *) A "Printing in Progress" dialog. *) A "Print Preview" control bar dialog. Icons ===== MS RegClean has three icons, all with images of 48x48 in 256 colors (of course). The funniest thing here is that the authors of MS RegClean have extracted the default desktop icon from shell32.dll, which is available at runtime as a resident resource anyway and at no image bloat overhead at all, and included it in toto in their executable. Menus ===== MS RegClean has eight (8) menus, at least half of these are simply junk left around by the MFC template. Another menu indicates that the authors of RegClean have in fact worked from an internal Microsoft Registry tool - rather bloated in itself it seems. String Table(s) =============== Actually it need only be one string table, but Microsoft itself has never learned this. The findings here were atrocious. And you must remember that strings stored in a string table are stored in Unicode, which means that their bloat automatically doubles. Further, MS's way of indexing strings in a string table means a 512 byte header block must be created for every string grouping, and strings are grouped according to the high 12 bits of their numerical identifiers (yes they are 16-bit WORD identifiers). Meaning indiscriminate or random numbering of string table entries will make an otherwise innocent application literally explode. 347 (three hundred forty seven, yep, your video driver is not playing tricks on you) string table entries were found in MS RegClean, including 16 identical string entries with the MS classic "Open this document" as well as archaic MFC template toggle keys texts which are not used here (or almost anywhere else today). Most of these strings have - of course - nothing to do with the application at hand. Toolbars ======== Toolbars are a funny MS way of looking at glyph bitmaps for use in toolbar controls. MS RegClean has two - one which may be used by the application, and one which was part of the original MFC template and never removed. Total Accountable Resource Bloat ================================ The total accountable (i.e. what can be directly calculated at this stage) resource bloat of MS RegClean 4.1a Build 7364.1 is over 360,000 bytes (350KB). Total Accountable Code Bloat ============================ Harder to estimate, but considering that most of the code is never used, only part of an MFC template that the authors of MS RegClean lack the wherewithal to remove, the original estimate of a total necessary image size of 45KB for the entire application must still stand. In Conclusion ============= Bloat is not a technical issue, but verily a way of thinking, a "state of mind". Its cure is a simple refusal to accept, and a well directed, resounding "clean up your act and clean up your code!" PS. Send feedback on RegClean to email@example.com RA Downes, Radsoft Laboratories http://www.radsoft.net
People seem to be talking about this as the result of mental aberrations common in Redmond. I think that this misses the point. Bloated software is the predictable result of the incentives operating in the software industry. In part, this is a perfectly rational use of resources. Code compactness, like any other desirable engineering outcome, must be traded off against things such as cost and time to market. As hardware gets cheaper relative to programmer time, it is reasonable to use more hardware and less programming effort. Microsoft's monopoly exacerbates this tendency. As long as they can annoy people into buying their software because there is no viable alternative (taking into account factors such as training costs, interoperability, and the Company approved software list), Microsoft faces the tradeoff of spending their money on compact code or your money on hardware. It's not a hard choice.
> One of the chief hallmarks of early UNIX was how simple, compact programs > worked well together.... To better understand bloatware, we may have to look to evolutionary biology. For example, peacocks have enormous tails and deer have antlers that certainly can't be explained by the usual 'survival of the fittest' kinds of arguments. The prodigious amount of energy required to grow these appendages has to reduce the animal's ability to run away from danger or survive an extended lack of food. Matt Ridley's 1993 book "The Red Queen" (ISBN 0-14-016772-2) is an outstanding discussion of the new thinking about such things in the field of biology. According to a Red Queen type of argument, bloatware will survive _precisely because it is bloatware_ — the bloat is a kind of 'display' similar to peacock tails or antlers used to prove the vigor of its creator, as only a truly vigorous creator could afford to waste the prodigious sums required to implement gross and useless appendages like 'Clippy'.
Bloatware is something we are very sensitized to here. The way we see it, there is no excuse, because there is no reason. I personally accepted Brian W. Kernighan's calculations back in the old days about a 10% bloat with C versus assembler because the rewards were tangible and far outweighed the bloat: you got largely (according to Steve Johnson 94%) platform independent code, saving countless man-hours of work. But ever since the popular inception of MS Windows and furthermore MS's MFC things have been way out of control. This is partly due to C++ and partly, if not largely, due to MS and their MFC itself. A typical Win16 application was 5KB, yet the same skeleton if built with the MFC back then was ten times that size. And Bjarne's words echoed in your ear: "C++ produces no noticeable overhead versus C." It simply was not so, and never will be so. With time the MFC overhead has been reduced somewhat, but programmers of today, raised on OO and C++ as opposed to what others have gone through, are simply not taught to be conservative and minimalistic. I received a letter yesterday from someone who had been reading the Risks Digest, and reported on a party he had attended some years earlier. The conversation turned inevitably toward software, and he mentioned that he often must really tweak code to get it compact and fast. Another person at the party, from you guessed it Redmond Washington, said that was *not* the way things were done there; she said that if they ever ran into performance problems, they just "threw more hardware at it." So there are several issues involved all at once, and AFAIK the only way to fight this, for stop it we must, is to expose it and make even ordinary end users understand what it's all about, and perhaps by a concerted effort we can turn back the tide. Rick Downes, Radsoft Laboratories http://www.radsoft.net
I was recently searching for a road in Albany, NY (USA). I went to MapQuest (www.mapquest.com) as I often do when searching for an address. I entered, in the address field, "Route 85" and then Albany and NY in the city and state fields. Knowing this is an actual road, and having seen it on MapQuest Albany maps before, I expected MapQuest to locate it. However, it returned "Address: 85 Rita Ln Albany NY 12211-2321 US." I repeated this same request several times, to the same result. Even more interesting, when I started clicking around the map or changing my zoom level, the top of the map displays "Your search origin is: Route 85, Albany, NY, US." Obviously MapQuest is attempting to make a guess on my request, and in this case, getting it very wrong. Normally if it can not find the address you request, it tells you so at the top of the map and then normally displays a city level map. However, in this case, it made no indication that it was making a guess. Just because data is returned, it isn't necessarily what you expect it is. Matthew Delaney <firstname.lastname@example.org>
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1999-05/01/169l-050199-idx.html Serbs Listening In on Pilots: Some Attacks Thwarted Because of Allied Jets' Unsecure Radio Gear By Dana Priest, *The Washington Post*, 1 May 1999; Page A01 Yugoslav forces have apparently thwarted some NATO air attacks because at times allied pilots speak to each other and to ground-based air controllers over open communications systems, according to NATO officials and U.S. intelligence reports ... OOPS! It seems as if not all NATO members *have* interoperable voice-encryption gear in their aircraft... The RISK? Law of Unintended Consequences, maybe? Sometimes suppressing an export market for 1979 reasons bites you on the backside in 1999... Can PGPphone work on a CRM-114, maybe? email@example.com [v].(301) 56-LINUX
May 3rd, numerous sources published a link to what they believed was Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 Service Pack 5. SP5 represents a return to service packs every 6 months from Microsoft after SP4 took nearly 18 months to get released. Unfortunately, for some, it turned out that the publicly accessible file was actually a Release Candidate version of SP5, and not the Final RTM version. Microsoft's web release mechanisms are, well, in flux right now and often take longer than people expect. As such, various components of such a release are often put in place before others. In this case, the 32MB self-extracting zip file of the SP RC was likely placed in a public location to verify, privately, that beta testers could actually access it correctly via the public site. For such a test, there's no need to ensure the file is the final RTM, just use what's at hand. Despite no public acknowledgement from Microsoft, and despite the Windows NT Downloads Home Page still featuring SP4 as its "featured download", a few, probably, well intentioned soles started sending notes to various lists and posting the link on their home page as "SP5 RTM". Likely an age old risk, the issue of "official" information. As the moderator of NTBugtraq, I put out a message today telling everyone that the link was *NOT* the "official" version of SP5 and that they should avoid it. Downloading the version that was provided via the link would, at least, mean two copies of a 32MB file needed to be downloaded, and at worst, could cause serious problems due to its lack of completeness. At the time of writing, however, Microsoft had made no "official" announcements...nor should they. They have *NOT* made an "official" announcement of it being available, so why make an announcement that says as much. Whether people chose to listen to my NTBugtraq "official" message on the subject or not is a matter of trust, but its no more "official" than those saying SP5 RTM is available, is it. FYI, whenever Microsoft makes a large download available from the 'net, backbones tend to suffer due to the huge volume of downloads that ensues. False messages about the availability of something like SP5 could lead to spikes in traffic unnecessarily, and other sundry problems. At least, it compounds the issues surrounding web distribution of large files. Russ - NTBugtraq moderator
When registering the domain for the startup I work for, I apparently re-registered an old domain that somebody else let lapse. As a result, I occasionally get mail destined for people in that old domain. The majority of such e-mail are actual correspondences because people haven't updated their address books. To illustrate the RISK, consider the following e-mail I received: > Xxxxx, > > I'll be away now for 8 weeks and will be having my mail intercepted by > our receptionist who is the kind of person who would have me sacked for > the type of mail that I've been receiving lately, so could you please > not send me any messages until I return. > > Also, when mail is sent to a list of people including myself, the mail > comes into our server as an inbound message failure, and then gets read > by the receptionist before forwarding. Unfortunately this is what > happened to the previous message 'ouch!' - hopefully the attachment > wasn't opened. > > cheers, > Yyyyy I enjoy contemplating the forged e-mails I could send him (which will get intercepted by the secretary). Any ideas? Robert Graham, CTO, Network ICE
Israeli computer scientist Adi Shamir is expected to present a paper outlining the design of a yet-to-be-built-machine that could quickly decipher computer generated codes. Shamir — who represents the 'S' in RSA encryption design — will present his paper this week at the International Association for Cryptographic Research in Prague, which begins Monday. Shamir's idea would combine existing technology into a special task computer that would make factoring numbers as long as 150 digits much easier. As a result, codes accepted as reasonably secure for financial transactions and government communications would be much easier to decipher. Researchers say the machine could be built at a relatively low cost, and that key systems of 512 bits or less (keys of about 140 digits or less) would be vulnerable. Longer 1,024-bit keys would still be out of reach for Shamir's new machine. (*The New York Times*, 2 May 1999; Edupage, 3 May 1999)
The [Colombo] Sunday Times http://www.lacnet.org/suntimes/990502/spec.html http://www.lacnet.org/suntimes/990502/plusm.html#label0 http://www.lacnet.org/suntimes/990502/plusm.html#1LABEL1 http://www.lacnet.org/suntimes/990502/bus2.html#2LABEL2 and Sunday Observer http://www.lanka.net/lakehouse/1999/05/02/fea33.html of 2 May 1999 both carry extensive coverage of the impact of the CIH virus, both in Sri Lanka and the rest of the world. Some of those affected here include: Yes FM, where one presenter reported the loss of five years' worth of data. John Keells Computer Services, where IT Manager of Software Development Services, Milinda Gunasena, was unaware of the virus and lost over 200 files and spent all day cleaning the system. DHL lost 15 computers, Forbes Tea Department three, and NIIT, an Information Technology firm lost five machines. The total damage here appears to be far less than in some other countries, notably South Korea, but this has clearly been a very serious incident throughout the region. Although these articles also contain some technical inaccuracies common in mass media coverage of events such as this, there are also some interesting rumours/myths which are also originating: "At least four computer vendors who did not wish to be identified said they suspected the virus originated from a particular company" meaning it had been released by an anti-virus software supplier... Much of the coverage here has highlighted the fact that this virus seems to have done most of its damage in Asia, and that this is largely due to the extensive use of pirated software. This is largely due to inadequate legislation and enforcement — currently in Sri Lanka, the law does not specifically protect copyright and intellectual property rights in computer software, and no doubt this is also true in much of the rest of Asia. However, the problem is not only inadequate legislation. It is possible to buy a licensed and up to date version of a program here if you have sufficient money, however, the cost of much of the "standard" software which everybody wants is very high — this is largely due to the huge profits which organisations like Microsoft chooses to make — and the fact that many hardware vendors install software (illegally?) at the point of sale, means that many users have no idea of the origin or provenance of the software they use. Much has also been made in the press here of the lateness of the warnings put out by the national IT bodies such as CINTEC. The possibility is even hinted at, and no doubt will meet with some public approval, that the lateness of the warnings makes anyone who knew about the virus in advance responsible. Results (apart from the damage done): - sales of anti-virus software have soared. Presumably these are all original disc rather than pirated, and will come with the appropriate periodic upgrades. - CINTEC (national IT council) is to establish some form of early warning section to keep the user community better informed. Outstanding issues (inter alia)(many no doubt familiar to RISKS readers): - Giving appropriate warnings in time — the danger of "crying wolf" needs to be borne in mind. Also the risk of media caused panic should be borne in mind by any group set up by CINTEC. - Establishing appropriate legislation and enforcement regarding software piracy. - Better education of IT users, not just to purchase anti-virus products, but to introduce procedures for ensuring they are used and kept up to date.
I've also encountered subject item noted in RISKS. However, it is possible using the Advanced Find for a user to see the messages dropped on Outlook Today. A simple advanced find with no parameters other than to look for all messages in the users mailbox will reveal the hidden items in Outlook Today as located in the "Top of Information Store" folder. J. Grant (firstname.lastname@example.org)
'Enabling Privacy in a Virtual World' 20 May 1999 See http://www.smartcardforum.org or by call (202) 530-5306. For information about The Smart Card Forum: Patrick Corman, Corman Communications, (650) 326-9648 email@example.com Nancy MacGregor <firstname.lastname@example.org> (415) 643-0766
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