An unharmonic convergence of solar eclipse and satellite's "invisible orbit"... SKY & TELESCOPE'S NEWS BULLETIN - JANUARY 4, 2002 For images and Web links for these items, visit <http://www.skypub.com> YOHKOH LOSES CONTROL On December 14, 2001, the Japanese solar observatory Yohkoh began spinning out of control. Since then, all scientific operations have stopped, and it remains unclear when the craft will be operational again. The problem began during last month's annular eclipse of the Sun. Yohkoh uses a Sun-centering system to determine its position at any given time. During the eclipse, the craft lost contact with the Sun, put itself into a "safe mode," and slowly began to drift off track and rotate. Normally this wouldn't have been a problem — during its decade in orbit, Yohkoh has seen its share of eclipses. However, this event occurred during a rare period of the craft's orbit (known as an invisible orbit) when the craft was out of communication with Earth. Thus controllers on the ground couldn't detect (or compensate for) the craft's sudden roll. Problems only got worse from there. Because of its slow roll, Yohkoh's solar panels no longer received direct sunlight. By the time ground controllers at the Kagoshima Space Center regained contact with the observatory, its batteries were very low and the craft had lost attitude control. To fix the problem, scientists first established contact and turned off all the craft's science instruments in order to conserve power. Currently the craft is rotating slowly, about one rotation per minute. According to Loren Acton (Montana State University), head scientist of Yohkoh's solar X-ray telescope, in the spacecraft's current state, its solar panels only receive sunlight in spurts. "During flashes of illumination, electricity is produced," says Acton. Thus the first step toward recovery is for scientists to wait until the craft can charge up. It's currently unclear when, and even if, scientists will regain control of the craft. But astronomers are hopeful. "It will take clever work to stop the roll and re-acquire the Sun," says Acton.
In RISKS-21.84, "Laura S. Tinnel" <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote about risks of unattended, unlocked computers in patient and examination rooms. Reminds me of a time a few years back when I visited my local HMO (they have their own facilities), and discovered a username, password and IP address on a PERMANENT sticker the side of a system (the monitor, actually) being used for Patient Registration. Needless to say, the first thing I did when I got home was 'ping' that address from my PC. Of course, it responded. When I tried 'telnet', it came back with 'Login:'. I didn't have the heart to try the credentials I'd seen. The NEXT thing I did was drop an e-mail to a friend who worked in IS at the HMO. I returned to the clinic two weeks later, and the sticker had been pasted over. I don't know if they've yet secured their network (we've since switched providers). Clay Jackson <email@example.com>
'"AOL officials could not explain" - why their servers identified these e-mail messages as spam.' Funny, because I can explain this, and have in previous submissions to comp.risks, as it happens to many mailing lists. AOL mail servers delete e-mails after accepting them if they think they are spam, without notifying the intended recipient or the sender. They do this when they receive bulk mailings, although the exact circumstances that trigger it remain known only to the AOL mail administrators. Anybody having set up a large e-mail lists knows this, you have to get bulk mailing servers white-listed by AOL. Presumably Harvard didn't do this. AOL doesn't publicise this information, but I've had the basics confirmed by a former employee of AOL. The only way to ensure you get the e-mail from lists you subscribe to is not to use AOL for your e-mail. Hopefully someone at Harvard will explain the business consequences of such idiotic behaviour to AOL, in the meantime just use an ISP who knows what they are doing, not for nothing did they get the nickname "America Offline". [Similar comments from Jenny Holmberg. PGN]
First, the stories claimed that these e-mails "bounced" back to Harvard. However, in my own experience with AOL's spam filters, most of the time that mail is simply sent to /dev/null. So the sender generally does not even get any notice that their e-mail was undelivered. Since I haven't seen any actual direct quote from a Harvard spokesrep I doubt any sort of ack was sent back. Also note that a "bounce" message would take this whole saga out of the "risks" venue (or at least move it to the margin). Once the sender is advised of the problem different steps can be taken. And in this sort of situation, an e-mail bounce ten minutes after sending is far preferable to a USPS similar bounceback which would take days or weeks. The second point is that the stories, again, claim that Harvard was putting information about this up on their Web page. I've been checking every few hours since the reports first appeared. Nothing about this has appeared on their main page nor on any obvious links.
Daniel Smith notes, "Let us hope that organizations do not begin use e-mail for communications more important than university admissions letters, in the name of "security" (and cost reduction)." Alas, it's too late for that. My alma mater, The University of Arizona(tm) (really!) now requires all students to have and use an e-mail account for official correspondence. While it's true that problems with university-hosted e-mail are not likely to cause a problem (or to be caught if they are), many students are likely to forward these accounts to other accounts where they might run into this problem. It's disturbing. UA's e-mail policy is online at http://www.registrar.arizona.edu/emailpolicy.htm .
I agree with Henry Baker's basic assessment that buffer overflows, especially in code which listens to the outside world (and therefore vulnerable to remote attacks) should be classed as legally negligent. However, it seems to be nigh-impossible to get programmers to write in more semantically solid languages. There is another solution: software fault isolation . If the C/C++ compilers included the sandboxing techniques as part of the compilation process, this would eliminate the most deleterious effects of stack and heap buffer overflows: the ability to run an attacker's arbitrary code, with a relatively minor hit in performance (under 10% in execution time). An interesting question, and one for the lawyers to settle, is why haven't these techniques been widely deployed? The techniques were being commercialized by Colusa Software as part of their mobile code substrate  in the mid 1990s. In March 1996, Colusa software was purchased by Microsoft and it seems effectively digested, thereby eliminating another potential mobile-code competitor, something Microsoft seemed to fear at the time. The interesting RISK, and one which is probably best left to the lawyers, is that as a result, for over half a decade, Microsoft has owned the patent rights and the developments required to eliminate two of their biggest security headaches: unchecked buffer overflows and Active-X's basic "compiled C/C++" nature, yet seems to have done nothing with them. What is the liability involved when a company owns the rights to a technology which could greatly increase safety, at an acceptable (sub 10%) performance penalty, but does nothing to use it in their own products? Especially when the result is serious, widespread security problems which could otherwise be prevented?  "Efficient Software-Based Fault Isolation", Robert Wahbe, Steven Lucco, Thomas E. Anderson, Susan L. Graham, in *ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review*, volume 27, number 5, December 1993, pp 203--216,  "Omniware: A universal substrate for mobile code" Nicholas C. Weaver firstname.lastname@example.org
> Perhaps in defense of Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie, C (and Unix, for > that matter) was created not for masses of incompetent programmers, but > for Ken and Dennis and a few immediate colleagues. Which only serves to emphasize Henry's point. The code that those "few immediate colleagues" wrote also suffered from buffer overflow problems. Not only did many ordinary commands written at Bell Labs fail given long enough lines, but in one early version of UNIX, the (written in C) login command had a buffer overflow problem that permitted anyone to login by providing sufficiently long input. In other words, C buffer overflows have caused security problems ever since the language was created; and even the earliest users of C have been caught by it. If software were really an engineering field, we would learn as engineers do to avoid tools and methods that persistently lead to serious problems. Note that gcc, the very popular GNU C Compiler, has experimental extensions to support bounds checking; see http://gcc.gnu.org/extensions.html. Let us hope that one of these extensions makes its way out of the laboratory soon. If it became a standard gcc option, the current sorry situation might begin to improve.
A good start, but as we have heard before, be careful what you wish for. First, take a quick look at our current patent office (full of experts who still approve the silliest software patents) to judge whether our legal system (full of someone's peers) will be able to handle the concept "buffer overflow". Second, even though most open source software is written in C, it is still easier to assemble a reasonably secure Internet server out of common open source software than it is from the dominant proprietary options. And open source software is getting better in this regard. On its face, however, it seems your proposal would have the effect of outlawing open source software. Rather, we might consider putting the liability on those who use the software — for even good software can be misapplied — encouraging users to choose well written products, and creating a market for well written products. Put another way, consider this example: instead of banning the "book of spells" we might instead sanction the "sorcerer's apprentice" who plugs an unprotected computer into the Internet and so lets the broomsticks fly. I don't think you'll get the results you desire. Sure, maybe let the user pass on some blame to negligent companies, but let's not have the blame *start* at the individual programmer's keyboard. Or, put in Roman terms, have the various management (including those who commission it) stand under the new bridge, not the stone carvers. -kb, the programmer Kent who admits he has a conflict of interest here.
Henry Baker complains about the continuing stream of problems due to buffer overflows, and blames the C language. PGN repeats a number of common defenses for C: - It's perfectly possible to write bad, buggy code in the best languages; - It's perfectly possible to write good code in the worst languages; - It's wrong to blame Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie (who, BTW, Mr. Baker did not) because they never intended for C and Unix to be used the way they are today; - Expanding on this, spreading the blame for the use of inappropriate Microsoft systems in life- and mission-critical applications to just about every one who's ever touched a computer. I've been a C programmer for some 20 years, a C++ programmer for 6. I know well the advantages of the languages. But I'm really tired of the excuses. No, Thompson and Ritchie are not to blame. Anyone who actually reads what they've written over the years - papers or code - will know that they understand the tradeoffs and make them very carefully. I wish my code could be as good as theirs! Unfortunately, I can't say the same about much of the C and C++ culture that grew up around their inventions over the years. A programming community develops its own standards and styles, its own notions of what is important and what isn't important. These standard, styles, and notions are extra- ordinarily influential. Some of the influence is transmitted through teaching; much is transmitted through the code the community shares. The most pernicious influences in the C/C++ community include: - An emphasis on performance as the highest goal. For the most recent manifestation of this, you need only look to the C++ Standard Template Library (STL). It has many brilliant ideas in it, but among the stated goals, from the first experiments, was to produce code "as efficient as the best hand-tuned code". "As *safe*" or "as *reliable*" were simply not on the table. The STL has attained its stated goals. Yes, there are debugging versions with things like bounds checking, but "everyone knows" that these are for testing; no real C++ programmer would think of shipping with them. - A large body of code that provides bad examples. Why are there so many buffer overflows in C code? The C libraries are, to this day, full of routines that take a pointer to a buffer "that must be large enough to contain the result". No explicit size is passed. I'm told that the guys at AT&T long ago removed gets(), a routine like that which reads input, from their own library. It persists in the outside world - an accident waiting to happen. Some routines have only very recently even appeared in alternative versions that have buffer length arguments - like sprintf() and its relatives. Until snprintf() became widespread (no more recently than the last 5 years), it was extremely difficult to write code that safely wrote arbitrary data to an in-memory buffer. (If you think it's easy, here's a quick question: How large must a buffer be to hold the result of formatting an IEEE double in f format with externally-specified precision? Hint: The answer is *much* larger than the "about 16" that most people will initially guess.) As part of a C++ system I work on, I have a vector-like data structure. The index operation using  notation is range- checked. For special purposes, there's an UnsafeAt() index operation which is not. Compare this to the analogous data structure in the C++ library, where  is *not* range checked and at() is. When the choice is between a and a.at(10), which operation will the majority of programmers think they are supposed to use? Which data structure would you rather see taught to the programmers who will develop a system your life will depend on? (BTW, extensive profiling has yet to point to 's range checking as a bottleneck, with the possible exception of the implementation of a hash table, where unsafeAt() could be used in a provably-correct way.) - A vicious circle between programmers and compiler developers. C and C++ programmers are taught to write code that uses pointers, not indices, to walk through arrays. (The C++ STL actually builds its data structures on the pointer style.) So why should C/C++ compiler developers put a lot of effort into generating good code for index-based loops? C/C++ programmers are taught not to expect the compiler to do much in the way of common sub-expression elimination, code hoisting, and so on - the earliest C compilers ran on small machines and couldn't afford to. Instead, C/C++ programmers are taught to do it themselves - and the C language allows them to. So why should C/C++ compiler developers bother to put much effort here? Put this together and you can see that checking your array accesses for out-of-range accesses can be a really bad idea: Your check code could run every time around the loop, instead of being moved out to the beginning as a FORTRAN programmer would expect. I'm sure there are some - perhaps many - C/C++ compilers today that would provide such optimizations. Given the generality of C and C++, it can be a challenge, but the techniques exist. However, it's an ingrained belief of C/C++ programmers - and a well-founded one - that they can't *rely* on the availability of such optimizations. (A FORTRAN programmer can't point to a standard in his reliance on such optimizations, but no one today would accept a FORTRAN compiler that didn't do them.) I haven't even touched on the closely related issue of the dangers of manual memory management, and the continuing refusal of the C/C++ community to accept that most programs, and certainly most programmers, would be better off along every significant dimension with even a second-rate modern memory allocator and garbage collector — especially in the multi-threaded code that's so common today. Is it *possible* to write reliable, safe code in C or C++? Absolutely -- just as it's *possible* to drive cross-country safely in a 1962 Chevy. Does that mean the seat belts, break-away steering columns, disk brakes, air bags, and many other safety features we've added since then are unnecessary frills? Programming languages matter, but even more to the point, programming *culture* matters. It's the latter, even more than the former, that's given us, and will continue to give us, so much dangerous code. Until something makes it much more expensive than it is now to ship bad code — and I believe that Mr. Baker is right, and the only thing that will do it is a few big liability judgments - nothing is likely to change. Unfortunately, liability judgments will bring other changes to the programming world that may not be nearly so beneficial.
Ari Ollikainen wrote [to HB]: > And hardware with separate instruction and data space would not > necessarily solve the buffer overflow problem but at the very least would > avoid the inevitable compromise of reliability... and the possibility of > corrupting running code. > There was a time when ANY flavor of unix was considered an oxymoronic > concept in regard to reliability and security. > Ari Ollikainen, OLTECO, Networking Architecture and Technology, > P.O. BOX 20088, Stanford, CA 94309-0088 1-415 517 3519 Ari@OLTECO.com Good point re separate I & D spaces ("Harvard" architecture). One of the reasons why people like network "appliances" (i.e., non-programmable devices, except for firmware) is that they think that they are secure from viruses. But if they have _any_ capability of executing code out of data space, then they are just as vulnerable to "buffer overflow" attacks. In fact, because of their supposed invulnerability, they are probably _more_ susceptible, because no one bothers to run virus checking software on them. Henry
About 18 months ago, I managed to get my Kodak digital camera into a state where it would not properly complete the power-up cycle, nor power down. I was able to clear this state by removing the batteries; on re-insertion, a normal power-down state presented itself, and power-up proceeded normally. The jammed condition was the result of timing of some user interactions while other actions were in progress; I have never been able to reproduce it.
BKINCRES.RVW 20011001 "Incident Response", Kenneth R. van Wyk/Richard Forna, 2001, 0-59600-130-4, U$34.95/C$52.95 %A Kenneth R. van Wyk email@example.com %A Richard Forna firstname.lastname@example.org %C 103 Morris Street, Suite A, Sebastopol, CA 95472 %D 2001 %G 0-59600-130-4 %I O'Reilly & Associates, Inc. %O U$34.95/C$52.95 800-998-9938 fax: 707-829-0104 email@example.com %P 214 p. %T "Incident Response" Incident response has, in the past, received short shrift in security literature. It is also a rather vague term: what type of an incident are we talking about? how big? What type of response are we considering? protective? defensive? offensive? The authors have provided us a starting point for consideration and the benefit of some years of experience, but this work is, unfortunately, less detailed than it might have been. Chapter one does not do a good job of defining incident response: the examples are instructive, but the material wanders through a number of topics without developing any central focus. There is an examination of the strengths and shortcomings of various types of response teams, such as those internal to companies, related to vendors, or established by security management companies, in chapter two. Planning, in chapter three, has some good points to consider, but doesn't offer a lot of guidance. Chapter four, entitled "Mission and Capabilities," seems to be the core of the book, touching on staff, positions, training, legal considerations, procedures, and other issues. A wide-ranging list of attack types, albeit with very terse descriptions, is given in chapter five. The incident handling model presented in chapter six is vague but reasonable. Chapter seven contains quick overviews of a number of detection tools, mostly software. A few resources, generally Web sites, are given in chapter eight. This book is the result of considerable background and practice. While there are no obvious errors and the material presents good advice, it is hard to be excited about the result. Overall, the book seems to lack direction, and fails to present a structured and clear guide to the preparations necessary for dealing with computer incidents. However, in the absence of other material it is better than nothing, and does raise the issues to be addressed. In response to the first draft of this review, one of the authors has responded that the intent of the book was not to address the techniques of incident response, but to provide management with an understanding of the subject. That statement fits with the text, but is in some opposition to the assertion in the preface that the book is aimed at all who would need to respond to incidents, including systems administrators and other technical people. copyright Robert M. Slade, 2001 BKINCRES.RVW 20011001 firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com http://victoria.tc.ca/techrev or http://sun.soci.niu.edu/~rslade
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