The Risks Digest

The RISKS Digest

Forum on Risks to the Public in Computers and Related Systems

ACM Committee on Computers and Public Policy, Peter G. Neumann, moderator

Volume 25 Issue 13

Sunday 27 Apr 2008

Contents

Hack into Obama campaign site exploited a coding flaw
Jordan Robertson via Joseph Lorenzo Hall
Hacking a rival smart card?
Robert P Schaefer
Face scans for air passengers to begin in UK this summer
Brian Randell
30th Spamiversary
Brad Templeton via Mike Hogsett
Re: Bouncing Merrily Along
Paul Karger
Re: Real-time spying on credit card holders
Ron Garret
Re: Neighbor's data shows up in my browser
Paul D. Smith
Erik Mooney
Re: GPS leads a bus astray
Roger Scrafford
Re: Nissan GT-R sports car and GPS
Chris Kantarjiev
Dag-Erling Smørgrav
Dag-Erling Smørgrav
Peter Houppermans
Dag-Erling Smørgrav
Info on RISKS (comp.risks)

Hack into Obama campaign site exploited a coding flaw (Jordan Robertson)

<Joseph Lorenzo Hall [joehall@gmail.com]>
Thursday, April 24, 2008 10:46 AM
  [Via Dave Farber's IP distribution.  PGN]

A simple flaw in the coding of Senator Barack Obama's Web site led to a
hacking switcheroo of presidential proportions just days before the
Pennsylvania primary.  Some supporters who tried to visit the community
blogs section of Obama's site started noticing late last week they were
being redirected to Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton's official campaign site.
Security researchers said a hacker exploited a so-called "cross-site
scripting" vulnerability in Obama's Web site to engineer the ruse.

Netcraft Ltd. said the hacker injected code into certain pages in the
section—code that was then executed when subsequent visitors tried to
view the community blogs section. The vulnerability has since been
fixed. ...  [Jordan Robertson, The Associated Press, 23 Apr 2008; PGN-ed]
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/04/23/AR2008042302976.html

Joseph Lorenzo Hall, UC Berkeley School of Information http://josephhall.org/


Hacking a rival smart card?

"Peter G. Neumann" <neumann@csl.sri.com>
Thu, 24 Apr 2008 14:14:51 PDT
From Reuters via Robert P Schaefer

A computer hacker testified on Wednesday that News Corp's NDS unit hired him
to develop software to reverse-engineer a rival's smart card.  Was the
purpose to pirate?

http://www.reuters.com/article/technologyNews/idUSN2334980420080424?pageNumber=3D1&virtualBrandChannel=0


Face scans for air passengers to begin in UK this summer

<Brian Randell [Brian.Randell@ncl.ac.uk]>
Friday, April 25, 2008 8:05 AM
  [Via Dave Farber's IP distribution.  PGN]

Owen Bowcott, *The Guardian*, 25 Apr 2008
Face scans for air passengers to begin in UK this summer;
Officials say automatic screening more accurate than checks by humans

A face recognition system will scan faces and match them to biometric chips
on passports.  Airline passengers are to be screened with facial recognition
technology rather than checks by passport officers, in an attempt to improve
security and ease congestion.  Unmanned clearance gates will be phased in to
scan passengers' faces and match the image to the record on the computer
chip in their biometric passports.

Border security officials believe the machines can do a better job than
humans of screening passports and preventing identity fraud.  The pilot
project will be open to UK and EU citizens holding new biometric passports.

But there is concern that passengers will react badly to being rejected by
an automated gate. To ensure no one on a police watch list is incorrectly
let through, the technology will err on the side of caution and is likely to
generate a small number of "false negatives" - innocent passengers rejected
because the machines cannot match their appearance to the records.

They may be redirected into conventional passport queues, or officers may be
authorised to override automatic gates following additional checks.

Ministers are eager to set up trials in time for the summer holiday rush,
but have yet to decide how many airports will take part.  If successful, the
technology will be extended to all UK airports.  ...

Full story at:
http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2008/apr/25/theairlineindustry.transport

School of Computing Science, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne,
NE1 7RU, UK  http://www.cs.ncl.ac.uk/people/brian.randell +44 191 222 7923
IP Archives RSS Feed: http://www.listbox.com/member/archive/rss/247/


30th Spamiversary

"Peter G. Neumann" <neumann@csl.sri.com>
Fri, 25 Apr 2008 14:05:35 PDT
  [Thanks to Mike Hogsett for noting this event, and Brad Templeton for
  recording it.]

What is allegedly the very first spam message was sent roughly 30 years
over the ARPANET:
  http://www.templetons.com/brad/spamreact.html#msg

In seeing this, Mike was amused because he works with some of the people it
was addressed to, of whom a few are still at SRI:
  NEUMANN@SRI-KA, GARVEY@SRI-KL, MABREY@SRI-KL, WALDINGER@SRI-KL
and some of whom are retired:
  ENGELBART@SRI-KL, NIELSON@SRI-KL, GOLDBERG@SRI-KL
(I am always amused when some of these old ARPANET addresses show up
in today's incarnations of spam.)

Also somewhat before Mike's time, Geoff Goodfellow, Ron Kunzelman, Dan
Lynch, and many others at SRI were instrumental in the evolution of the
ARPANET.

Also included in the enormous enumerated TO: list (historically interesting
in itself by not having been suppressed!) are Bill English (who was the
catalyst for much of Doug Engelbart's innovations being transitioned from
SRI to PARC), Dave Farber, Irv Jacobs, Bob Metcalfe, Jon Postel (who by then
had moved from SRI to ISI), three Sutherlands, and Lauren Weinstein, to name
just a few.

Happy Birthday, Spam!  Sorry I cannot wish you many happy returns.

  [Error corrected in archive copy.  PGN]


Re: Bouncing Merrily Along (Ladkin, RISKS-25.12)

Paul Karger <karger@watson.ibm.com>
Wed, 23 Apr 2008 09:23:13 -0400
Making it a legal offence to reply to the "From:" address of a message one
had classified as spam would be disastrous.  Many overly-ambitious spam
filters classify legitimate email as spam.  In particular, there is one spam
filter that regularly classifies email from family members as spam, even
though the email itself is quite legitimate and contains no evil
attachments.  Until there are perfect spam classifiers (which is likely
never), such a legal requirement would criminalize responding to legitimate,
but miss-classified emails.  (Yes - I've tried to get the spam filter in
question fixed, but it hasn't happened yet.)


Re: Real-time spying on credit card holders (Brown, RISKS-25.12)

<Ron Garret>
Wed, 23 Apr 2008 23:13:46 -0700
 > The risks are left as an exercise for the reader...

I've been reading RISKS for a looooong time.  I'm not quite as paranoid as
they come, but I'm close, and I don't see the problem.  In fact, this seems
like a pretty good idea to me, not so much because it allows bosses to spy
on their employees (though that doesn't seem altogether unreasonable) but
because this kind of closed loop could put a serious dent in credit card
fraud.  The source of nearly all credit card fraud is the fact that under
the current protocols, the information used in one transaction can be used
to conduct a different transaction.  Adding a closed loop through a node
over which the card holder has actual control (like an email account or a
cell phone) eliminates this problem.  The only reason IMO the card companies
have not done this sooner is that they have been able to fob the problem off
on the merchants.

Perhaps Mr. Brown would be so kind as to elucidate exactly what he thinks
the RISKS are?


Re: Neighbor's data shows up in my browser (borborugmus, RISKS-25.12)

"Paul D. Smith" <paul_d_smith@hotmail.com>
Wed, 23 Apr 2008 08:26:11 +0100
How about the following explanation.  Both neighbours use the same ISP and
power off their networks.  when they power up, the ISP assigns Jason's DHCP
address to the OP and then the tax site maps that IP address (previously
used by Jason) and provides Jason's details to the OP.

This would be a really scary ignorance of the way in which the Internet
works!


Re: Neighbor's data shows up in my browser (borborugmus, RISKS-25.12)

Erik Mooney <erik@dos486.com>
Wed, 23 Apr 2008 11:32:14 -0500
This is easily explainable by server-side IP tracking, so you can rest easy
on "Jason" hacking your computer.  It's quite likely the server noticed a
hit from an IP address that matched a recent login from Jason.  (Either an
exact match, or similar within a few subnet bits.)  So it helpfully
preloaded the auto-complete list to speed the login process for Jason.
After your reboot, the most recent hit from that IP or subnet was no longer
Jason, so Jason's information was no longer preloaded.

The privacy risk does exist, but would seem fairly minimal.  Name and
address are hardly secrets, so the only thing you learned was that he has a
computer and used TurboTax online.  A View Source on the HTML might have
dispelled any further concerns about leaking Jason's info to you or your
info to anyone else from the same IP address or subnet.


Re: GPS leads a bus astray (Caley, RISKS-25.12)

"Roger Scrafford" <roger.scrafford@gmail.com>
Wed, 23 Apr 2008 16:20:05 -0700
Last year my Significant Other Martha and I were at the end of a California
vacation, driving south from Calistoga to Oakland in our GPS-equipped rental
car.  All went well until the pleasant female GPS voice told us to take a
certain exit.  It didn't look right, but I though, "Why not?  We have time,
and we might see something new."

I took the exit, as did the car behind me.

I was directed down some very suburban side streets which were clearly not
going to be taking us anywhere near the Oakland airport.

The car stayed behind me.

Finally the car honked because I had slowed to try to figure out where I
was, and what might have gone wrong.  I pulled over, and as he roared past
me, honking again, I could hear the driver shout something about "tourists."

I continued on, following the GPS route, which now brought me back to the
starting point of the misdirection.

"Turn right," said the GPS.  To do so would have taken me around the same
suburban loop.

Just as I turned left (against the advice of the GPS) I noticed that the car
which had once been following us, and which had honked and whose driver had
shouted, was now sitting curbside, its occupants shouting and waving arms in
frustration, arguing about which of them had made this terrible mistake.

Though I have no proof, I believe they had the same in-car GPS that we had,
and received the same erroneous directions.  But we used our heads, and were
soon on our way back to Oakland on a road we knew would actually take us
there.  For all I know, the other car is still looping around that obscure
California neighborhood, blindly following the instructions of the GPS.


Re: Nissan GT-R sports car and GPS (Clark, RISKS-25.11)

Chris Kantarjiev <cak@dimebank.com>
Tue, 22 Apr 2008 18:07:14 -0700
I've spent the last two years looking at map data from vendors across the
world trying to understand if they have decent speed limit data.  They
don't.  Last time I ran the numbers, NAVTEQ provided "observed" speed limit
data on less than 10% of the US street segments. TeleAtlas is worse. You
don't want to hear how bad the EMEA data are. For the most part, the best
you can do is choose a speed limit based on the class of road (limited
access, expressway, arterial, etc.)

Most US States have speed limits that vary by vehicle type - for example,
class A trucks may only drive 55 on freeways even if the road speed limit is
listed as 65. That's in California (and many other states), but there are
exceptions, sometimes on a per-road basis (the Ohio Turnpike comes to mind,
and Texas has even more arcane rules).

Real-time conditions aren't even under consideration ... though the
infrastructure to deliver the condition information is improving!


Re: Nissan GT-R sports car and GPS (Taylor, RISKS-25.12)

Dag-Erling Smørgrav <des@des.no>
Wed, 23 Apr 2008 11:05:15 +0200
>  Does the car work if it can't get a GPS fix?

Modern car navigation systems (such as the TomTom Go 920) have
accelerometers in addition to a GPS receiver.  The primary purpose of these
accelerometers is to allow the system to function in tunnels and deep
valleys, but they should also nullify the effect of a GPS jammer, unless of
course the jammer is in a car that's driving on the same road, in the same
direction, at the same speed as you are.


Re: Nissan GT-R sports car and GPS (Houppermans, RISKS-25.12)

Dag-Erling Smørgrav <des@des.no>
Thu, 24 Apr 2008 09:59:17 +0200
> [...  SEE 25.12.  PGN]

With all due respect, this is preposterous.

First of all, the speed limit warning is one of a series of safety features
that can be enabled and disabled, and last I checked they were all disabled
by default.  When they were first introduced in a software update some
months ago, I deliberately enabled the speed limit warning and the menu
restrictions.

Second, if you do enable it, there is an audible warning when you go above
~110% of the local speed limit.  The default sound is a soft triple chime
that repeats at an interval of about 30 seconds (I've never timed it, it
just feels that way)

Third, there is a hysteresis, so that if you cross from a section with a
higher speed limit into a section with a lower speed limit, TomTom will wait
a bit for you to reduce your speed before the speed indicator goes red and
the audible alarm goes off.

Fourth, if you are going more than 10% over the speed limit - which is when
it starts blinking - you'd better be watching the road and not your satnav
or I wouldn't want to be on the same road as you.  In fact, TomTom has
another safety feature you can enable that blanks the screen when you go
above a certain speed.

Fifth, regarding misleading speed limit information, *use your eyes* - how
on earth did you cope before you got your satnav? - and use TomTom's map
correction feature to report the error.  I concede that it doesn't handle
variable limits, though, and it is a problem in Oslo, where I live, albeit a
minor one - there is only one road where the speed limit varies on a daily
or intra-daily basis, and two where it varies on a seasonal basis.

Sixth, when you've driven a few miles with your TomTom, you should have a
pretty good idea of the magnitude and sign of the error on your car's
built-in speedometer (mine is 8%, and unless there is something wrong with
your car, it is always positive, i.e. you are going slower than the
speedometer indicates), so incorrect speed limit information in your satnav
shouldn't be a problem - provided you pay attention to the signage so you
know when it's incorrect.

Personally, I don't find the blinking annoying at all - once I enabled it, I
adapted very quickly so that I now see in my peripheral vision when it's on
and when it's off, and I don't have to stare at it to read the speed.


Re: Nissan GT-R sports car and GPS (Smørgrav, RISKS-25.1)3

Peter Houppermans <peter@houppermans.com>
Thu, 24 Apr 2008 13:10:00 +0200
We differ of opinion on a number of points.

It starts with an apparent assumption that all TomTom versions are equal,
which is not the case.  I was talking about Navigator 6 on Symbian (further
named N6) - my fault for not clearly identifying it because it alters the
discussion somewhat (and it means another risk has been identified, version
delta).

Further, note that I'm not *relying* on the speed limit feature - it
actually gets in my way :-)

> I deliberately enabled the speed limit warning and the menu restrictions.

I didn't deny the original useful intention.  It's especially handy when
abroad and when you're in a different system of measurements (miles vs
kilometers) - but claiming a feature isn't a problem because you can switch
it off misses the point somewhat.  And in my version it cannot be disabled.
Speed indication comes with limit "feature", like it or not.

New risk: different implementation per version. In N6, the speed tolerance
in N6 is limit + 5 km, with the disco effect starting at limit + 10 km
(where limit = what TomTom derives from the supplied maps).  N6 also lacks
the audible alarm, but I started this discussion talking about the speed
indication and what the alarm "feature" does to it - not that I'm somehow
reliant on the limit information (if anything, I'd be happy if I could
disable it).

> TomTom will wait a bit for you to reduce your speed before the speed
> indicator goes red and the audible alarm goes off.

And this affects the discussion in which way?

> In fact, TomTom has another safety feature you can enable that blanks the
> screen when you go above a certain speed.

Available in N6.  I think we're on the level with road sharing - I would be
worried about a driver relying on an external, unaudited and unaccredited
piece of equipment with data in need of improvement as primary means to
comply with speed limits, instead of using a speedometer that require formal
type approval before vehicle use.  And let's hope the radio stays off :-)

My point is exactly that there is very little time to take in data when
driving (side and rear mirror scan, speedo, fuel status, children) so the
last thing a device should do is obstruct information.  If one insists on
blinking then use at least a method that doesn't deny or delay information,
especially if this feature isn't optional.

[...] I already observed I'm not that interested in the limit data (it
presently seems to get in the way :-).

The map correction feature is another fun feature.  It leads me to suspect
it's maybe a good idea to avoid any new road layouts for a while because
drivers may be distracted entering map changes, potentially resulting in a
higher than usual accident risk..  Joking aside, the only way I can see that
work sensibly is if it's a one-button feature which simply sends the current
GPS location to the surveyors for review (i.e.  uses the traffic link, for
example).  That would ensure the quality of the input, because the whole map
sharing concept has IMHO some entertaining potential too.

As a matter of fact, if you file a map issue with TomTom this is exactly
what happens.  You identify an issue, and they appear to queue a location
survey to re-acquire the information, which assures the quality.  And sell
you a new map :-).

I think my reasons for why I want the speed facility are slightly immaterial
to the discussion, but FYI, it merely serves as extra calibration data for
me as a driver as I use multiple vehicles in various countries, it's not a
primary source of information.

> Personally, I don't find the blinking annoying at all ...

Well, AFAIK blinking fell into programming disrepute (other than for severe
alarms and Hollywood movies) somewhere around the times VT100s were
introduced.  It appears we need to re-chlorinate the gene pool because it
keeps popping up.  Blinking, as it were..

It's also not a major issue (after all, I'm still using the software :-),
merely a fine example of how the best intentions get waylaid by not thinking
something through and sufficiently testing it in the field.  I see the same
issue with map share - I'm sure creative use will appear at some point.

I just hope it can be disabled..


Re: Nissan GT-R sports car and GPS (Houppermans, RISKS-25.13)

Dag-Erling Smørgrav <des@des.no>
Thu, 24 Apr 2008 15:54:40 +0200
When the "restricted menus" feature is enabled and the car is moving,
most menu choices - including map correction - are disabled.

There is an option to have a button on the screen that you hit to mark
the location so you can enter the correction later.  I don't like it, as
it clutters the screen; instead, I either make a mental note to enter
the correction later, or pull over and enter it right away.

You get twelve months of free updates for every map you buy.

There is also an option to update your map with unverified corrections,
in which case you immediately get any correction that has been reported
by multiple users.  I'm not sure what the cutoff is, and I'm not sure
how quickly speed limit corrections are made available; they seem to be
processed manually, unlike simpler changes (one-way streets, blocked
streets, intersections converted to roundabouts or vice versa...)

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