The Risks Digest

The RISKS Digest

Forum on Risks to the Public in Computers and Related Systems

ACM Committee on Computers and Public Policy, Peter G. Neumann, moderator

Volume 26 Issue 08

Thursday 10 June 2010

Contents

System failures in offshore drilling processes
Steve Loughran
The costs of Electronic Device Adiction
Marv Schaefer
Software bug cuts off medical oxygen
David Lesher
Wood and computers don't mix in tracking trains
Mark Brader
Computers and Stupidity
Sarah Jacobsson via Gene Wirchenko
Expensive malware appears for Microsoft's Windows Mobile
Geoff Goodfellow
UK Scrapping National IDs
Sam Waltz
Protecting Internet Security
China Daily
The Internet in China - Fascinating Chinese white paper
Lauren Weinstein
North Korean hackers steal IDs to post Cheonan rumors
Paul Saffo
Computerized ticketing reduces ticket writing
Jeremy Epstein
Everyone's a food critic
Ike DeLorenzo via Monty Solomon
Re: Drilling for Certainty
Robert Searle
Re: $42.9 million slot jackpot should have been $20
Mark Brader
Re: Scientist Infects Himself With Computer Virus
Steve King
Re: It's not just the camera in the laptop
Jerry Leichter
Info on RISKS (comp.risks)

System failures in offshore drilling processes

Steve Loughran <steve.loughran@gmail.com>
Fri, 4 Jun 2010 14:55:15 +0100

There's a fairly scary history of past near-miss events on US offshore oil
drilling facilities:
http://www.theoildrum.com/node/6543

One of the points here is that the "Blow Out Preventer", the thing that
apparently failed in April on the Deep Horizon's drilling facility, is the
absolute last line of defence -things should not get that bad. Yet on a
number of previous occasions they did, implying that what happened this year
was just statistics catching up: if you spend too much time living on the
edge, eventually you fall off.

Common causes which should be familiar to us all.
* Inadequate training of staff for them to properly undertake the risks of
  their actions
* Failure of warning systems (lights, etc), failures that you don't notice
  while things are working normally, but which bite you when something does
  actually go wrong.

There was also one incident triggered by corrupted data transfer between
"terminals", causing the drilling rig getting invalid information about
where it should be, causing it to move. That is something where the blame
can be laid direct the door at we software developers. Checksums: they are
there for a reason. Even basic CRC32 checks catch most problems, and while
MD5 and SHA-1 checksums are starting to look cryptographically weak, they
certainly catch data corruption.


The costs of Electronic Device Adiction

Marv Schaefer <bwapast@verizon.net>
Mon, 07 Jun 2010 12:35:25 -0400

An interesting suite of articles is in *The New York Times*, 7 Jun 2010.
http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/07/technology/07brain.html?hp

The articles' basic question is whether the wide abundance of electronic
devices, particularly those requiring some degree—however small—of
interaction has lead to fleeting attention spans and high degrees of
ineffective multitasking. Studies are cited in the article that indicate
that those who are addicted to computers, iPads, iPhones, iPod Touch,
electronic games,&c are not only spending 10 or more hours per day hooked
into devices, but are easily distracted, not at all efficient in changing
from one task to another (despite their feeling that they are effective at
multitasking) and prone to letting big things fall through the cracks. Their
lead example in the main article, of a hooked-up entrepreneur missed an
e-mail that offered to buy out his business, finding it only after the
passage of several days.

There's an online 'test' feature in the sidebar to 'test your focus' and
ability to juggle tasks. Not a pretty result, that, but it is motivated by
the growing number of people whose home computers have multiple crts, some
of which are dedicated to e-mail, instant messaging, and social media,
another to newsfeeds and such, and a third that could be dedicated to work
-- in the case of the entrepreneur it's his programming environment. Beside
him, he has his headphones, iPhone and iPad. His wife, also addicted, can't
even make it through preparing a meal without having something burn and, in
one case, failing several times to prepare and cook a pastry.  > Is the
article anywhere near being accurate in representing a growing problem? How
significant is the threat posed by electronic media addiction? We've all
seen multiple people at the same table in restaurants—or in joint
sessions of Congress—with their thumbs flying on Blackberries and even
generic cellphones. Fatal accidents caused by texting and other electronic
diversions (e.g., resetting GPS on the fly) are on the increase. We drove
past a motorcyclist on the Interstate a couple of days ago, who was typing
into a device with a monitor (I think it was a laptop) while he was
'driving' his bike (he was in the middle lane).


Software bug cuts off medical oxygen

David Lesher <wb8foz@panix.com>
Thu, 03 Jun 2010 16:20:23 -0400

<http://www.firehouse.com/news/top-headlines/software-failure-linked-minn-womans-death>

Software Failure Linked to Minn. Woman's Death; The woman died aboard a Red
Wing, Minnesota, Fire Department ambulance on 22 Apr 2010, 3 Jun 2010

An ongoing investigation has revealed that a software glitch likely led to a
woman's death aboard a fire department ambulance on 22 Apr 2010, according
to *The Pierce County Herald*.  Janice Hall was being transported to
Minneapolis when the ambulance's onboard oxygen system unexpectedly quit,
killing her, a Dakota County Medical Examiner's report states.  Red Wing
Fire Chief Tom Schneider told the newspaper that the system "spontaneously
shut itself off."

The friend who sent this was a paramedic in decades past, and wondered why
O2 flow would ever be run by anything more complex. I had no answer for
that.  [02 = Medical oxygen; by mask or nasal cannula, but these would have
been masks.]


Wood and computers don't mix in tracking trains

Mark Brader
Mon, 7 Jun 2010 05:17:06 -0400 (EDT)

The June 2010 issue of "The Railway Magazine" includes an article about the
systems used to keep track of locomotives and train cars in Great Britain.
In 1973, British Rail adopted a system called TOPS (Total Operations
Processing System), which had been originated by the Southern Pacific
Railroad in the US and allowed the location of every car to be tracked.

But when they got this going, they found that "phantom" freight cars would
keep appearing and disappearing in the system.

Investigation revealed that the cars involved were always ones with
wooden sides, and when the wood had to be repaired, sometimes the
repairmen would take a plank from one car and reuse it on another --
not realizing that they should not do this *if the plank was the one
with the car number painted on it*!  As it was, some cars had no number
at all and others had different numbers in different places.


Computers and Stupidity (Sarah Jacobsson)

Gene Wirchenko <genew@ocis.net>
Thu, 03 Jun 2010 11:20:15 -0700

I have a topper for all those GPS stupidity stories.
[Source: Sarah Jacobsson, 3 Jun 2010]
http://www.itbusiness.ca/it/client/en/home/news.asp?id=57836

Woman who 'didn't know how to look both ways before crossing street' sues
Google for bad directions.  She said it was dark, she had never been to the
area before, and didn't know how to look both ways before crossing the
street.  And now Lauren Rosenberg has gone to court, blaming Google Maps for
bad directions.


Expensive malware appears for Microsoft's Windows Mobile

the terminal of geoff goodfellow <geoff@iconia.com>
June 5, 2010 2:04:24 PM EDT

  [From Dave Farber's IP distribution.  PGN]

Malware embedded into legitimate-looking games designed for Windows Mobile
has appeared, automatically dialing up foreign telephone services to ring up
hundreds of dollars in illicit charges for users behind their backs. ...

... Critics have chafed at Apple's secure software signing model and have
praised Google's alternative Android model, which enables users to download
software from any source, without any security model in place, at their own
risk.

The appearance of malware on Windows Mobile is particularly interesting
because the motivation of this assault was entirely financial. That being
the case, the fact that the malicious developers targeted Windows Mobile,
which is almost entirely limited to the US and now trails Symbian (42%), RIM
(21%), and Apple's iPhone OS (15%) in market share (9% over the last year),
throws decades of Windows-based punditry on its head because "malicious
hackers" supposedly only target the largest platform.

iPhone security features deter malware

Just the fact that Apple has a real security policy in place for iPhone
mobile software in its iTunes App Store serves as a strong deterrent for
rogue developers from even attempting to distribute malicious iPhone OS
software like the tainted games discovered for Windows Mobile.

Jim Finkle, writing for Reuters, claimed that "hackers are increasingly
targeting smartphone users as sales of the sophisticated mobile devices have
soared with the success of Apple Inc's iPhone and Google Inc's Android
operating system," but in reality, any attacks aimed at iPhone users are not
software based expressly because of Apple's strict security policy, and must
be limited to social engineering exploits that prey upon people directly,
rather than infecting their devices with malware.

Android users (just like Mac and Windows users) have no similar security
protection in place, and should be very careful about downloading software,
even from legitimate appearing websites. Unlike desktop malware, which is
somewhat limited in the scope of damage it can cause, mobile malware has the
ability to rapidly run up very expensive mobile bills for weeks before the
user is likely to even notice a problem.

http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/10/06/04/expensive_malware_appears_for_microsofts_windows_mobile.html

http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE6535TS20100604

Archives: https://www.listbox.com/member/archive/247/=now


UK Scrapping National IDs

Sam Waltz <samwaltz@member.mensa.org>
May 28, 2010 12:00:51 PM EDT

  [From Dave Farber's IP distribution.  PGN]
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/8707355.stm
ID card scheme 'axed in 100 days'

The National Identity Card scheme will be abolished within 100 days
with all cards becoming invalid, Home Secretary Theresa May has said.
Legislation to axe the scheme will be the first put before parliament
by the new government - with a target of it becoming law by August.

The 15,000 people who voluntarily paid 30 pounds for a card since the 2009
roll out in Manchester will not get a refund.  Ms May said ID card holders
would at least have a "souvenir" of the scheme.

TIMELINE
# July 2002: Plans unveiled
# November 2004: ID cards bill
# March 2006: Act becomes law
# November 2009: Cards available
# May 2010: Scheme scrapped

The Labour scheme was aimed at tackling fraud, illegal immigration and
identity theft - but it was criticised for being too expensive and an
infringement of civil liberties. The cards were designed to hold personal
biometric data on an encrypted chip, including name, a photograph and
fingerprints. The supporting National Identity Register was designed to hold
up to 50 pieces of information.

The cards already in circulation will remain legal until Parliament has
passed the legislation to abolish them and the register. The short abolition
bill will be pushed through Parliament as quickly as possible with the aim
of cards being invalid by 3 Sep.

Anyone who has a card or has to deal with them, such as airport security
officials, will be told the termination date in writing. Once the cards are
illegal, the National Identity Register will be "physically destroyed", say
ministers. Some 60 people who were working on the scheme for the Identity
and Passport Service in Durham have lost their jobs.

Ms May said: "This bill is a first step of many that this government is
taking to reduce the control of the state over decent, law-abiding people
and hand power back to them. With swift Parliamentary approval, we aim to
consign identity cards and the intrusive ID card scheme to history within
100 days."

Officials are renegotiating two contracts worth 650M pounds with companies
who had agreed to deliver parts of the scheme. It's not clear how much the
government will need to pay compensation, but officials say there is no
"poisoned pill" in the deals and they expect to save 86M pounds once all
exit costs are met.  [...]


Protecting Internet Security, *China Daily*, 8 Jun 2010

"Peter G. Neumann" <neumann@csl.sri.com>
Wed, 9 Jun 2010 18:01:56 PDT

  [An official Chinese government document.  TNX to Paul Saffo; PGN-ed]
  http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2010-06/08/content_9950198_7.htm

Internet security is a prerequisite for the sound development and effective
utilization of the Internet. Internet security problems are pressing
nowadays, and this has become a problem of common concern in all countries.

China also faces severe Internet security threats. Effectively protecting
Internet security is an important part of China' s Internet administration,
and an indispensable requirement for protecting state security and the
public interest. The Chinese government believes that the Internet is an
important infrastructure facility for the nation.

Within Chinese territory the Internet is under the jurisdiction of Chinese
sovereignty. The Internet sovereignty of China should be respected and
protected. Citizens of the People's Republic of China and foreign citizens,
legal persons and other organizations within Chinese territory have the
right and freedom to use the Internet; at the same time, they must obey the
laws and regulations of China and conscientiously protect Internet security.

  The remaining sections are
  * Protecting Internet security in accordance with the law
  * Secure information flow
  * Combating computer crime in accordance with the law.
  * Opposing all forms of computer hacking

According to incomplete statistics, more than one million IP addresses in
China were controlled from overseas in 2009, 42,000 websites were distorted
by hackers, 18 million Chinese computers are infected by the Conficker virus
every month, about 30% of the computers infected globally. ...

  [18M computers Re-Confickered?  I wonder how many of those are pirated
  systems that were never updated.  PGN]


The Internet in China - Fascinating Chinese white paper

Lauren Weinstein <lauren@vortex.com>
Tue, 8 Jun 2010 13:30:17 -0700

  [From NNSquad.org]

The Chinese government has just released a white paper covering a wide range
of topics related to their view of the Internet.  It is *very* much
recommended reading.  Since this paper apparently was only released
officially as a number of separate HTML pages, I have converted and combined
them into a single PDF document for ease of handling, and am hosting the
file locally.

"The Internet in China" (Single PDF file):
  http://bit.ly/bGsTBK  (Lauren's Blog)
Original HTML version:
  http://bit.ly/cDglKq  (China.org.cn)


North Korean hackers steal IDs to post Cheonan rumors

Paul Saffo <paul@saffo.com>
Tue, 1 Jun 2010 10:54:41 -0700

  [Nice testimony on the ineffectuality of govt IDs and Internet identity
  verification.  PS]

[Source: Yoo Jee-ho, Lee Young-jong, Joongan Daily, 2 Jun 2010; PGN-ed]
http://joongangdaily.joins.com/article/view.asp?aid=2921288p

North Korean defectors yesterday rallied at the Chinese Embassy in Seoul to
criticize China's shielding of the North in the Cheonan case.  North Korean
hackers are using identity information purloined from South Koreans --
including their resident registration numbers - to post diatribes on local
message boards accusing the government of fabricating the probe results into
the sinking of the warship Cheonan.

An intelligence source said yesterday North Korean hackers recently
bombarded a message board at a South Korean online community site with posts
claiming the government had made up the accusation against Pyongyang.  The
source said the hackers have obtained personal information through various
channels and their servers were likely based in Beijing. In order to write
messages on Web portals in South Korea, one must be a registered user, and
the 13-digit resident registration numbers are required for membership. The
hackers have tracked down those numbers and corresponding names, and used
them to open accounts on Web sites, the source said.

Authorities have been trying to crack down on rumors that the results of the
probe into the Cheonan sinking were fabricated and used by Seoul to disgrace
North Korea. Several netizens and left-leaning activists have been detained
for questioning for allegedly spreading such rumors.

On May 20, a multinational team of experts concluded North Korea attacked
the Cheonan with a torpedo on March 26, killing 46 sailors on board. ...

Last July, North Korea was accused of launching distributed denial of
service, or DDoS, attacks that paralyzed key government and private
Web sites in Seoul.

Police in South Korea were busy yesterday trying to track down the origins
of more rumors about the Cheonan sinking. Seoul police said yesterday about
300 postcard-sized printouts were distributed in Seongdong and Nowon
districts in northeastern Seoul claiming the Cheonan probe was bogus and
that the Grand National Party was ready to launch war.


Computerized ticketing reduces ticket writing

Jeremy Epstein <jeremy.j.epstein@gmail.com>
Wed, 9 Jun 2010 18:31:10 -0400

Fairfax County (Virginia) police are writing 28% fewer tickets because their
new computerized system takes so long to enter tickets.  No surprise, but
interesting that they're quantifying it and talking about it.

It goes back to the old question: yes you CAN computerize it, but SHOULD you
computerize it?

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/06/06/AR2010060603219.html


Everyone's a food critic (Ike DeLorenzo)

Monty Solomon <monty@roscom.com>
Wed, 2 Jun 2010 08:11:53 -0400

Yelp and other online sites and their cadre of amateurs have sent nervous
ripples through the restaurant world [Source: Ike DeLorenzo, *The Boston
Globe*, 2 Jun 2010; PGN-ed]

Restaurant dining has new bookends. The experience often begins and ends
with the Web. Before you go out, you find a good place to eat; after you
dine, you post a review. Millions of diners are now civilian critics,
letting Chowhound, Yelp, Citysearch, and others in on their recent meals.

The domain of criticism was once the preserve of magazines and
newspapers. This year has seen a flurry of activity for restaurant review
sites, and for some new approaches to public critiques. Two big players -
the biggest actually - want in on the action. Last week, Facebook began
mailing door stickers to restaurants asking diners to "like'' (there's no
"dislike'') and comment about restaurants with Facebook pages. Google
recently launched Google Place Pages, also with door stickers, which allow
diners with smartphones to point the camera at a bar code and instantly
display a comments page. All of this is enough to make restaurateurs worry
about every single diner.

In the same way that travelers use various websites to find evaluations of
hotels, diners are now turning to online food sites for advice on where to
eat. As staggeringly fast as participation in food and restaurant websites
has grown, so has the attention being paid amateur critics. Comments and
ratings from any one diner may, of course, be biased or even false. Many
Internet pundits believe in something called "the wisdom of the crowd.'' The
theory is that with many people commenting, you eventually get to the truth
about a restaurant. As the public posts about the food, the service, the
ambience, the bearnaise, the baguettes, a fuller and more accurate picture
is supposed to evolve. The amateurs are not going away, which restaurateurs
once might have hoped, and they are making chefs nervous.

Yelp, a social networking site where users post their own reviews, in March
had 31 million unique visitors, up from 20 million a month last year. Since
Yelp launched in 2004, 10 million reviews, mostly for restaurants, have been
written. Similar sites also show strong growth. But because they hope to
profit from what is submitted, these sites have goals that may be at odds
with the restaurants, and even with the commenters. Yelp and its aspirants
are in the business of making money by brokering information.

But there are suggestions - well, allegations even - that the natural
ratings that should result are being manipulated. Kathleen Richards, a
reporter for *The East Bay Express* in Oakland, Calif., wrote a widely
circulated story last year about Yelp's advertising and editorial
practices. According to Richards, Yelp sales representatives would routinely
cold-call Bay Area restaurants asking that they agree to a yearly contract
to advertise on Yelp ($299 per month and up). Part of the pitch involved
promises to remove bad Yelp reviews or move them off the main page. Richards
also presented evidence that, in some cases, bad reviews had been written by
the Yelp sales representatives themselves to force a sale. Failing to agree
meant prominent bad reviews. ...

http://www.boston.com/lifestyle/food/articles/2010/06/02/websites_such_as_yelp_and_citysearch_are_adding_to_the_pressure_put_on_restaurants_and_their_chefs_by_amateur_critics/


Re: Drilling for Certainty (RISKS-26.07)

searler <robert.searle@taitradio.com>
Mon, 31 May 2010 12:22:52 +1200

[Since>] the article [appeared,] almost half of the back-log has been
reviewed without finding anything.

The tone of the article is shock-horror-outrage, but was anyone at risk of
*suddenly* having a problem actually at risk—I assume that this test is
part of a set and that it would rarely be the case that *only* this test
found a *life-threatening* anomaly.

It certainly seems that the hospital should make some changes to ensure that
  a) Every test undertaken is analysed
  b) Un-necessary tests aren't made.

Caveat: I assume that some tests are more cost-effective if they are made at
the same time and that some of the tests do not need to be analysed if the
other tests are negative. These tests lead to exceptions to rules a) and b)
above (and I assume are lurking somewhere at the root of this case).


Re: $42.9 million slot jackpot should have been $20 (RISKS-26.07)

Mark Brader
Wed, 2 Jun 2010 19:31:58 -0400 (EDT)

> The correct prize for an apparent $42.9 million slot machine jackpot
> that a Thornton woman hit at a Central City casino should have been
> $20.18, Colorado gaming regulators said ...

Well, that's $20.18 better than the last time this happened to someone.
See my item "You have won $[2^32-1]/100, no wait, we mean nothing" in
Risks-25.61.


Re: Scientist Infects Himself With Computer Virus (RISKS-26.07)

Steve King <steve@narbat.com>
Tue, 01 Jun 2010 16:19:14 -0400

The article about University of Reading scientist Mark Gasson infecting
himself (or rather, his implanted RFID chip) with a computer virus pegs my
bogometer.  I've not been able to find any more details, though I did turn
up the University's press release at the link below.

I want to give Dr. Gasson the benefit of a doubt here. He's a senior
research fellow at the University's Cybernetic Intelligence Research Group,
so he *should* know better than this.  However, the press release reads like
a bad movie plot. "Once infected, the chip corrupted the main system used to
communicate with it. Should other devices have been connected to the system,
the virus would have been passed on."

I'd think that for this to be at all possible, it would have to be a very
specific attack against a particular vendor's hardware or RFID communication
stack. The idea of an RFID chip infecting arbitrary equipment is about as
believable as the virus Jeff Goldblum used to bring down the alien
mothership in Independence Day.

Press Release:
http://www.reading.ac.uk/sse/about/news/sse-newsarticle-2010-05-26.aspx


Re: It's not just the camera in the laptop

Jerry Leichter <leichter@lrw.com>
Sun, 30 May 2010 07:46:26 -0400

In RISKS-26.07, Jeremy Epstein discusses the much-reported Lower Merion
School District "spying via laptop case".  While I agree with most of what
he says, he does say: "Cameras that give no reliable indication of when
they're on".  The "camera live" light on all Mac laptops - the machines
involved here - appears to be hardware controlled.  (If there's a way to
override that control through software, it hasn't made it into any of the
literature.)  In fact, in the Lower Merion case, students noticed that the
"camera live" light would turn on at random times.  When they complained,
they were told "it's just a glitch, ignore it".  A student who wouldn't
accept that response ultimately discovered the facts.

I don't know whether *other* cameras have hardware-controlled activity
lights, or any activity lights at all.  I suspect that even if they do now,
cost-cutting will inevitably lead to their disappearance over time.

The first desktop with an embedded microphone was introduced by Sun back in
the '80's, as best I can recall.  There was a great deal of concern at the
time about the risks involved - especially when it was found that a
configuration error granted open network access to the microphone.  However,
the machines *did* include a hardware-controlled "microphone activated"
light, "so it's OK".

In the years since, built-in microphones have become the standard - and it's
been many years since I last saw a "microphone active" light of any sort.
Of course, we're surrounded by microphones - in cell phones, game consoles,
even pens.  There have been cases of government tapping through "unexpected"
microphones (the ones in "inactive" OnStar units of cars).  I'm not aware of
any *reports* of private clandestine listening - but I can't imagine that it
isn't taking place.

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