The RISKS Digest
Volume 26 Issue 53

Sunday, 7th August 2011

Forum on Risks to the Public in Computers and Related Systems

ACM Committee on Computers and Public Policy, Peter G. Neumann, moderator

Please try the URL privacy information feature enabled by clicking the flashlight icon above. This will reveal two icons after each link the body of the digest. The shield takes you to a breakdown of Terms of Service for the site - however only a small number of sites are covered at the moment. The flashlight take you to an analysis of the various trackers etc. that the linked site delivers. Please let the website maintainer know if you find this useful or not. As a RISKS reader, you will probably not be surprised by what is revealed…


F-35 Testing Suspended
Gabe Goldberg
Google's driverless car causes 5-car pile-up
Mark Thorson
The Anti-Malware Follies, George Ledin Jr
George Ledin
The Speed of the Web, the Speed of the Nonsense
Robert X. Cringely via Gene Wirchenko
How does a telco call its service people when its network is out?
Danny Burstein
Text error sends Scottish exam results a day early
Carrell/Shepherd via Monty Solomon
Microsoft vs. Google: Patents, Society, and Greed
Lauren Weinstein
Java SE 7 Problems
Gene Wirchenko
Report on 'Operation Shady RAT' Identifies Widespread Cyber-Spying
Nakashima/Tate via ACM TechNews
The_Most_Expensive_One-byte_Mistake Generates Buzz
ACM Bulletin
Microsoft Kicks Off $250,000 Security Contest
Gregg Keizer via ACM TechNews
AT&T increases voice mail security; Password meant to deter hackers
Hiawatha Bray via Monty Solomon
8 Technical Methods That Make the PROTECT IP Act Useless
Lauren Weinstein
Contractor leaves hundreds of bank account details at a pub
Jim Reisert
Hospital reports a possible data loss
Liz Kowalczyk via Monty Solomon
Re: High-rolling gamblers are exploiting a quirk in Cash WinFall, raking in huge profits
Jim Reisert
Re: Google+ and Names
Tony Finch
Re: Motorcycle 'smart key'
Carl Byington
Re: Don't throw away Grandma's wind-up desk clock
Tony Finch
Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, Vol 2 Issue 2
Heather M. Bell
Info on RISKS (comp.risks)

F-35 Testing Suspended

Gabe Goldberg <>
Thu, 04 Aug 2011 10:12:32 -0400

Uh oh: "the Navy's F-35C variant was grounded due to a software problem
that could have caused the control surfaces to freeze in flight"

  F-35 Testing Suspended

Officials have ceased all flight and ground operations for the Joint Strike
Fighter after the integrated power package (IPP) on a U.S. Air Force variant
test aircraft failed, Tuesday, during a ground maintenance run at Edwards
Air Force Base. No injuries were reported as a result of the unit's failure
and developers are working to source the cause. The particular aircraft is
an AF-4, which is a conventional takeoff and landing version of the
multi-role aircraft. The IPP combines functions performed by an auxiliary
power unit, emergency power system and environmental controls. It's failure
isn't the only electrical problem to ground F-35s this year.

The cessation or limiting of specific operations during the test program is
not particularly unusual, but putting a halt to ground operations is less
common. Overall, the F-35 is ahead of its latest schedule, which was put in
place in January. The F-35 has previously suffered delays this year. In
March the fleet was grounded due to a dual generator failure on this same
test aircraft. In June, the Navy's F-35C variant was grounded due to a
software problem that could have caused the control surfaces to freeze in
flight. In both cases, the problem was sourced and resolved, and aircraft
were returned to testing shortly thereafter. Developers are aiming for a
similar result now.

Google's driverless car causes 5-car pile-up

Mark Thorson <>
Sat, 6 Aug 2011 07:56:06 -0700

But it was being operated in manual mode by a human driver.
Those darn humans, always messing things up.

The Anti-Malware Follies, George Ledin Jr

George Ledin <>
Sun, 7 Aug 2011 12:19:49 PDT

  [For the Inside Risks series in the Communications of the ACM, George
  Ledin has written two articles on the importance of teaching malware, also
  available at, subject to
  ACM copyright as indicated on those web pages:

  * Not Teaching Viruses and Worms is Harmful (CACM 48, 1, January 2005)

  * The Growing Harm of Not Teaching Malware (CACM 54, 2, February 2011)

  I invited George to submit this new item to the Risks Forum, to give what
  tends to be an important but contentious topic broader audience.  PGN]

- - - - -

The Anti-Malware Follies, George Ledin Jr

If you eliminated Kung-Fu from Enter the Dragon, how much movie would be
left? If you got rid of signature databases from all commercial antimalware
products, what would these products be good for?

We demand efficacy of our prescription medicines. Shouldn't we require that
the antimalware services we purchase be useful and effective?

Indexing ancient, archaic, vestigial malware is a relatively mundane,
actually chiefly automated, menial task. It is also easily defeatable, even
by amateurs.

In our underground lab my students run a ridiculously simple experiment.
Four sacrificial computers on a cart are wheeled in. Each computer has been
preloaded with a popular, widely used antimalware package. Four computers,
four different packages, one per computer because, curiously, competing
antimalware packages don't tolerate being active on the same computer

There are some fifty companies that offer similar antimalware `protection'.
Although some of these companies have expanded their business horizons to
include compliance, record retention, dataloss mitigation, password
management, and various other services, the antimalware products continue to
be the reliable cash-cows they've always been.

Once the isolated cart is wheeled in and its four computers are booted up,
students are invited to try to defeat the installed protection.  They come
prepared with CDs harboring different versions of a well- known virus or
worm or trojan, such as Melissa or I Love You or others that we store safely
in our archives.

Students insert their CDs. The original, unaltered versions of the
historical malware are promptly recognized by the antimalware packages,
which communicate their findings on the computer screens and sandbox the
troublemaking malware.

The antimalware packages do not fare well when confronted by slightly
altered versions of the same malware. Versions in which the main body of the
malware is gutted and replaced by my students with innocuous `Hello World!'
programs are still flagged by the antimalware packages as if these programs
were dangerous.

These false positives are expected, of course. That's because the original
virus, worm, or trojan, now lacking a body, will not cause any harm, but its
headers, the donors of signature data stored in the antimalware lists,

False negatives are also easily achieved by leaving the body of the malware
unchanged while obfuscating or altering the malware's outer cladding.

Students observe first-hand how commercial antimalware fails to deliver the
protection it promises. Tweak a virus', worm's, or trojan's exterior bits
but leave its interior bits intact and the antimalware package can't
recognize the wolf in sheep's clothing.

Keep the malware's exterior as is while commenting out its interior sets off
righteous but false alarms.

The most impressive demonstration comes from the students' own amateur
efforts. Their own simpleton, primitive, but actual course-project
programming work passes unnoticed. Improvised malware, the fruit of their
limited experience but fertile imagination, slips by commercially available
antimalware products.

Well, not quite. The top quarter or so of the fifty antimalware firms,
evidently and painfully aware of the obvious limitations (not to say much
about credibility) of their signature-based products, have been
experimenting with `behavioral' markers.

This is a bold and at first blush promising idea. If, upon entering a
computer, a program exhibits unusual or suspicious conduct that is
unnecessary for the normal functioning of that computer, protection can be
offered by way of warnings to the user and automatic, preventive
quarantining of that program.

The behavioral concept is intriguing and, once malware teaching and research
are taken more seriously, the concept may blossom into testable hypotheses.

Not yet, unfortunately. The antimalware firms' principal motivation is to
keep their profitable services, and this cannot be done by admitting the
truth—that these services provide little or no defense against new
malware. Users today are eager to load up their digital devices with all
kinds of applications, a good percentage of which exhibit unusual or
unexpected behaviors. (But aren't necessarily malware.)

The antimalware companies know they must tread carefully so as not to
alienate their large numbers of pliant subscribers who thus far don't mind
downloading these companies' upgrades and patches, but would be restive and
annoyed by each unnecessary precaution and false alarm.

Malware authors know all of this, of course. Some current and all future
Confickers and Stuxnets of the world have nothing to fear.

We, however, cannot afford to ignore our worries. Between 3 and 6 million
botnets are at the beck and call of malware deployers; hence the
consequences of business as usual are more than merely terrifying.

Rustock, for example, was taken down by a very old-fashioned law enforcement
raid that stopped a hundred servers from blasting spam, but the Rustock
botmasters still managed to curtail the damage done to them by wiping
incriminating information. Law enforcement raids to take control of the
servers and legally seize and convert the botnets' backup domains are
melodramatic events in which occasionally and very expensively good triumphs
over evil. Like revenuers' raids on speakeasies and gin mills during
prohibition, these `triumphs' are ephemeral and ultimately very cost

It's wishful, deluded thinking to expect Internet attacks to abate. We can,
however, hope for greater effectiveness in dealing with malware.

Dissemination of knowledge—widespread education—is essential.
Teaching malware and openly exchanging research data will help everyone
(e.g.,  Informed users are better
defenders.  Like Bruce Lee's Kung-Fu, it should not be only in the hands of
the bad guys.

The Speed of the Web, the Speed of the Nonsense (Robert X. Cringely)

Gene Wirchenko <>
Fri, 05 Aug 2011 13:19:07 -0700
InfoWorld Home / Notes from the Field
IE and me: Who looks stupid now?
Yes, the 'IE users are stupid' story is a hoax. Cringely says the joke's on him
By Robert X. Cringely | InfoWorld

selected text:

"You know that survey that said IE users were dumber than paint, which I
wrote about not once but twice earlier this week? It's all a hoax,
perpetrated by a Web entrepreneur named Tarandeep Gill (if that is his real
name). He fesses up here.

Yes, I feel stupid, thanks for asking. At least I'm in good company.  CNN,
the BBC, NPR, and a number of other mainstream news outlets all took the

Really, who could resist? It was a story tailor made for the Web."

  It certainly was tailor-made.  Hoaxes are.

How does a telco call its service people when its network is out?

danny burstein <>
Thu, 4 Aug 2011 10:08:35 -0400 (EDT)

[WNBC tv news]

AT&T wireless subscribers in New York this morning probably cannot make or
receive phone calls due to what the company calls a software upgrade.  The
problem likely started at 1:30 a.m. Thursday, according to a service
representative with the phone giant. Smart phones do not appear to be
affected to the same degree as mobile phones.

When AT&T mobile phone users attempt to make a call, the caller likely
receives a display that says the circuit or channel is not available. There
is also no ring tone.

If someone tries to call the user, the call typically goes directly to

An AT&T service representative told NBC New York that this problem appears
to be restricted to phones within New York City. The representative could
not offer a time frame for when the problem would be fixed.


Text error sends Scottish exam results a day early

Monty Solomon <>
Wed, 3 Aug 2011 22:33:44 -0400

Exam officials launch investigation after 30,000 students in Scotland who
opted to get grades by text were sent them early

Severin Carrell and Jessica Shepherd
The Guardian, Thursday 4 August 2011

Exam officials have launched an investigation after up to 30,000 students in
Scotland who opted to get their grades by text message were sent them on
Wednesday, a day early by mistake.

Opposition leaders in the Scottish parliament said the blunder had given
these students a clear advantage in finding places at university because the
list of late courses available went live on the Internet at a minute past
midnight on Thursday morning, nine hours before the results were officially
due to arrive. ...

Microsoft vs. Google: Patents, Society, and Greed

Lauren Weinstein <>
Sat, 6 Aug 2011 12:50:18 -0700

  [From Network Neutrality Squad]

              Microsoft vs. Google: Patents, Society, and Greed

In his 1971 science fiction novel "The Futurological Congress," author
Stanislaw Lem takes a dark look at the premise that most of what we see
around us—even the seemingly obvious—is actually illusionary to some
extent, and that even many people who believe that they know they underlying
truths are themselves being fooled by deeper layers of reality's onion.

In the worlds of finance and high technology, there is a great deal of truth
to this interpretation, and we need only look to the warped and largely
destructive world of patents to realize how far we've gone astray.

Patents and related concepts have a long history, but this 1844 quote from a
report to the French Chamber of Deputies in the debates preceding adoption
of the French Patent Law of 1844 is noteworthy:

  "Every useful discovery is, in to Kant's words 'the presentation of a
  service rendered to Society'. It is, therefore, just that he who has
  rendered this service should be compensated by Society that received
  it. This is an equitable result, a veritable contract or exchange that
  operates between the authors of a new discovery and Society. The former
  supply the noble products of their intelligence and Society grants to them
  in return the advantages of an exclusive exploitation of their discovery
  for a limited period".

The emphasis on "service rendered to Society" is particularly striking.

Fast forward to 2011, and the concept of "serving society" seems to have
been painfully marginalized as a prime mover in the titanic patent battles
and associated atrocities that are increasingly a millstone around the necks
of society and consumers—creating mainly enormous monetary and lost
opportunity costs.

This sorry situation didn't appear overnight.  Back in 2002, in "Stop
the Patent Process Madness" ( [Wired] ), I briefly
described the rise of stealth and protective patents, and how the
enormous expansion of both software and business method patents has
further distorted the picture.

Since then, I would argue that matters have gotten far worse, with patents
now being explicitly wielded as weapons of financial destruction, rather
than as the instruments of innovation that were originally intended to serve

The current very public arguing between Microsoft and Google regarding
massively expensive "bundles" of patents purportedly associated with
smartphone systems (and Android in particular)—well explained and
analyzed on Groklaw ( )—is a notable current example.

Leaving aside Microsoft's flagrant and disingenuous attempt at
mischaracterizing the situation, including their obnoxious, out of context
release of an email from Google that Microsoft clearly hoped would cast
false aspersions on Google's motivations, the overall landscape related to
high technology patents is nothing short of insane.

To use the vernacular, a "simple" DVD player involves a lot of patents.  A
typical PC invokes an amazingly large range of patents.  And a modern
smartphone can trigger a stupefyingly gigantic mountain of patents --
perhaps as many as a quarter of a million.

Notably (and especially in the smartphone case), the technical term for most
of these patents is "bull"—they shouldn't really have been granted in the
first place.

But we've reached a point now where even good players feel obligated to file
patents left and right in order not only to protect themselves from
malevolent patent sharks, but also to try preserve openness for future

If core Internet technologies had been patented decades ago in the manner
that tech is patented today, I would assert that the Net we'd have now would
be an enormously more closed and restricted environment—if the Internet
had even managed to really continue developing at all under such conditions.

Average consumers are largely unaware of how grossly these "layers" of the
patent system not only effectively create a "tax" on the technology that
they purchase, but also create such a fear of litigation that many creative
individuals choose not to proceed with developing products or services that
otherwise could have benefited society greatly.

There is an imperfect—but still fairly horrifying—analogy between the
way "bundles" of patents can be treated by the unscrupulous as
anticompetitive weapons, similar in some respects to how bundles of
sub-prime mortgages were manipulated in manners that helped lead to our
recent economic collapse.

Another relevant example is ICANN's atrocious "gold rush" scheme for massive
generic top-level domains expansion ( [Lauren's Blog] ).

In all of these cases—patents, mortgages, domains—the original,
society-serving functional purposes of these concepts have been largely lost
in the rush to treat the buying and selling of these "instrumentalities" (or
related derivatives) as mechanisms mainly of financial gain for a relative
few, but with society at large losing enormously as a result.

Peeling the onion down another layer, I believe that this is symptomatic of
a deeper failing, an increasing tendency to value not the creation of new
products and services that benefit society and consumers generally, but
rather the manipulation of the systems themselves by the unscrupulous to
serve greed—forcing even the benevolent players into the game on a purely
defensive basis.

A practical path out from this nightmare is not entirely clear.  To call
Congress dysfunctional these days is to be charitable beyond measure.

At the very least, as individuals we can try to stay informed regarding the
reality of these situations—the inner layers of the onion.

This will not only help us to see through ignoble tactics such as those
employed by Microsoft in the current smartphone patents controversy, but
more generally enable us to more accurately discern where many other matters
of concern actually stand, and what society should be demanding from our
legislators, leaders, the financial community, and major industries in

In Lem's "Futurological Congress," most of the population lived in a
carefully conceived, falsified representation of reality.

We need not follow their example.

Lauren Weinstein (
People For Internet Responsibility:
Network Neutrality Squad:
Tel: +1 (818) 225-2800 / Skype:

Java SE 7 Problems

Gene Wirchenko <>
Thu, 04 Aug 2011 12:17:33 -0700

Having just been stung by Java in trying to write a simple parser: one
little thing after another, I would have said that Java designers are Java's
worst enemy.  I might have been off, but only a bit:

InfoWorld Home / Application Development / Fatal Exception
August 04, 2011
Oracle: Java's worst enemy
The buggy Java SE 7 release is only the latest misstep in a mounting
litany of bad behavior
By Neil McAllister

selected text:

Oracle shipped Java SE 7 with a serious, show-stopping bug, and who was the
first to alert the Java community? The Apache Foundation. Oh, the irony.

This is the same Apache Foundation that resigned from the Java Community
Process (JCP) executive committee in protest after Oracle repeatedly refused
to give it access to the Java Technology Compatibility Kit (TCK).

Now we learn that Oracle knew about the Java SE 7 bug fully five days before
it shipped the product. And yet it shipped anyway because five days wasn't
enough time to fix the problem.

Report on 'Operation Shady RAT' Identifies Widespread Cyber-Spying

ACM TechNews <technews@HQ.ACM.ORG>
Wed, 3 Aug 2011 11:52:32 -0400

ACM TechNews; Wednesday, August 3, 2011
 Read the TechNews Online at:
This service may be reproduced for internal distribution.
Sponsored by

Report on 'Operation Shady RAT' Identifies Widespread Cyber-Spying
*The Washington Post*, 3 August 2011, Ellen Nakashima, Julie Tate

Over a period of several months, 72 corporations and government
organizations--49 of them U.S.-based--were hacked by an extensive
cyberspying operation, according to a new McAfee report.  McAfee researchers
analyzed logs generated on a single server to trace the hacks, which
targeted the Hong Kong and New York offices of the Associated Press, the
networks of the International Olympic Committee, 12 U.S. defense companies,
a U.S. Energy Department lab, and the United Nations Secretariat, among
others.  McAfee says the hackers were seeking information on sensitive
U.S. military systems, along with material from satellite communications,
electronics, natural gas companies, and even bid data from a Florida real
estate firm.  James A. Lewis at the Center for Strategic and International
Studies says the intrusions are likely Chinese in origin, noting that the
target list's stress on Taiwan and on Olympic organizations in the run-up to
the 2008 Beijing Games "points to China" as the culprit.  McAfee says that
hackers had erroneously configured a command-and-control server based in a
Western nation to produce logs that identified every Internet protocol
address the server had controlled for the past five years.

  [See also

The_Most_Expensive_One-byte_Mistake Generates Buzz

ACM Bulletin <>
Thu, 4 Aug 2011 13:14:37 -0400

A column on the acmqueue website ( questions the
decision by C/UNIX/Posix creators Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and Brian
Kernighan to use NUL-terminated text strings.  Bikeshed columnist
Poul-Henning Kamp surveys the impact of this choice and its relationship to
the frequent failure of the CS/IT industry to recognize and learn from

The column ( went live this week
and registered more than 70,000 views in the first three days. In that time
frame it recorded 23,000 slashdot hits
and generated more than twice that amount of traffic to the acmqueue site.
Follow the comments on Slashdot or the acmqueue website

Microsoft Kicks Off $250,000 Security Contest (Gregg Keizer)

ACM TechNews <technews@HQ.ACM.ORG>
Fri, 5 Aug 2011 11:40:29 -0400

ACM TechNews, Friday, August 5, 2011
Gregg Keizer, Microsoft Kicks Off $250,000 Security Contest,
*Computerworld*, 3 Aug 2011

Microsoft has launched a $250,000 contest for security technology
researchers that challenges them to find ways to defend against entire
classes of exploits.  "We want to make it more costly and difficult for
criminals to exploit vulnerabilities," says Microsoft's Katie Moussouris.
"We want to inspire researchers to focus their expertise on defensive
security technologies."  The contest, which runs through April 1, 2012, asks
researchers to developing mitigation technology for preventing the
exploitation of memory safety vulnerabilities.  The winner will receive
$200,000, the second-place winner will receive $50,000, and the third-place
winner will receive a subscription to Microsoft's developer network.
"Overall, it seemed to us that to take an approach to block entire classes
was the best way to engage with the research community and protect
customers," Moussouris says.  The contest shows that Microsoft is looking
for solutions to return-oriented programming, which can be used by attackers
to breach current Windows security technologies such as ASLR and address
space layout randomization, says nCircle Security's Andrew Storms.  A panel
of Microsoft employees will judge the contest.

AT&T increases voice mail security; Password meant to deter hackers

Monty Solomon <>
Sat, 6 Aug 2011 17:39:37 -0400
  (Hiawatha Bray)

Hiawatha Bray, *The Boston Globe*, 6 Aug 2011

AT&T Inc. is changing the default method by which cellular customers check
their voice mail, after reports that the company's policies made messages
more vulnerable to hackers than on other cellphone carriers.  The giant
telecommunications company said it will start requiring users to enter a
password to access their voice mails from their own cellphones. Until now,
AT&T users calling from their own phones would immediately get access to
their voice mails without entering a password. ...

8 Technical Methods That Make the PROTECT IP Act Useless

Lauren Weinstein <>
Sun, 7 Aug 2011 16:35:17 -0700

8 Technical Methods That Make the PROTECT IP Act Useless  (ZeroPaid)  [From NNSquad]

    "We've been running a series of guides that show just how easy it is to
     [bypass] general DNS censorship. It's general DNS censorship that has
     been proposed in the PROTECT-IP Act among other things. Rather than
     simply debate philosophically on why the PROTECT-IP act will do
     absolutely nothing to deter copyright infringement, we decided to do
     one better and prove it instead."

Contractor leaves hundreds of bank account details at a pub

Jim Reisert AD1C <>
Fri, 5 Aug 2011 11:48:10 -0600

Humans are often the weakest link:

“Saving personal information on to an unencrypted memory stick is as risky
as taking hard copy papers out of the office,'' said Sally-Anne Poole,
acting head of enforcement at the Information Commissioner's Office (ICO).
“This incident could so easily have been avoided if the information had
been properly protected.''

Jim Reisert AD1C, <>,

Hospital reports a possible data loss (Liz Kowalczyk)

Monty Solomon <>
Sat, 6 Aug 2011 17:39:37 -0400

Liz Kowalczyk, Hospital reports a possible data loss; Doctor misplaced drive
that had held patient records *The Boston Globe*, 6 Aug 2011

A doctor who works at Brigham and Women's and Faulkner hospitals lost an
external hard drive in June, and the computer device may have contained
medical information for 638 patients, the hospitals said yesterday. ...

Information related to inpatient hospital stays from July 10, 2009, to
Jan. 28, 2011, may have been on the device, including patient names, medical
record numbers, dates of admission, medications, and information about
diagnosis and treatment. The device did not contain Social Security numbers,
insurance numbers, or other financial account information.

Re: High-rolling gamblers are exploiting a quirk in Cash

Jim Reisert AD1C <>
Sat, 6 Aug 2011 04:17:40 -0600
 WinFall, raking in huge profits (RISKS-26.51)

State Treasurer Steven Grossman severely restricted yesterday the number of
Cash WinFall lottery tickets any store can sell in a day, closing a loophole
that has allowed a handful of high-stakes gamblers to win most of the

Just three gambling companies collected 1,105 of the 1,605 Cash WinFall
prizes statewide after a May drawing, each following a strategy that
involved buying hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of the $2 tickets at
selected stores over a few days.

Under the new rules, no store will be allowed to sell more than $5,000 worth
of Cash WinFall tickets in a single day, making it much harder for the
gamblers to continue their high-volume purchases.

Jim Reisert AD1C, <>,

Re: Google+ and Names (Wirchenko, RISKS-26.51)

Tony Finch <>
Wed, 3 Aug 2011 14:45:44 +0100

Gene Wirchenko <> wrote:
> There has been a big commotion over real names with Google+ with accounts
> being terminated.

Kirrly "Skud" Robert has done a lot of informative analysis on the
problems caused by the "real name" policy and its erratic enforcement.

Over a year ago Patrick McKenzie wrote an amusingly ranty checklist of
assumptions that programmers should not make about names.

Re: Motorcycle 'smart key' (RISKS-26.52)

Carl Byington <>
Tue, 02 Aug 2011 17:56:13 -0700

So you are riding on a highway with the key in your (backpack, pocket,
etc), and it falls out on the ground. Does the steering now lockup? That
would be more than just a tip-over.

Re: Don't throw away Grandma's wind-up desk clock (Lee, RISKS-26.51)

Tony Finch <>
Wed, 3 Aug 2011 14:32:39 +0100

> I've seen that report before and wonder if there simply isn't some lousy
> reporting going on. [...] It sounds to me like the only change proposed
> is lengthening out the period as well, perhaps, as allowing the error to
> accumulate further before it is corrected.

No, the proposal is to completely stop correcting the accumulated phase
error for a year.

Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, Vol 2 Issue 2

"Heather M. Bell" <>
Wed, 3 Aug 2011 11:25:10 -0700 (PDT)

  [Given the lack of discipline concerning quantitative and qualitative
  approaches to computer-related risk management, I thought it might be
  useful to compare what is done in analyzing and ameliorating risks in
  various other application areas—many of which of course have
  computer-related components.  Perhaps the lack of far-sighted and
  non-local optimization is endemic there as well.  However, there are
  sometimes more hoops to jump through.  PGN]

Berkeley Electronic Press
The Policy Studies Organization and Berkeley Electronic Press are pleased to
announce the latest issue of Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy.


* Managing Risk through Liability, Regulation, and Innovation:
  Organizational Design for Spill Containment in Deepwater Drilling

* What's Your Position on Nuclear Power?  An Exploration of Conflict in
  Stakeholder Participation for Decision-making about Risky Technologies

* Opportunities and Challenges of Incorporating Climate Change Threats
  into Disaster Risk Management Planning: A Case Study in Costa Rica

* School District Partner Choice in Emergency Management Collaboration

* Assessment of an Emergency Disaster Response to Floods in Agadez, Niger

* Climate Disaster Resilience of Dhaka City Corporation: An Empirical
  Assessment at Zone Level


* Assumptions Can Kill

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