Back in the 1970s, there was a very popular show called "Happy Days," starring Ron Howard and Henry Winkler, who played Arthur "Fonzie" Fonzarelli. Five years into the series, an episode aired in which Fonzie is shown improbably water skiing and jumping a shark to show his bravery. A few years later, the phrase "Jumping the Shark" came to mean that point in a television series where the program had reached its peak, and it was going to be all downhill from then on until it got canceled. I think risk management in the oil industry has reached that moment, except in this case, I think the appropriate phrase is "Jumping the Walrus." According to BP PLC's 582-page 2009 spill response plan for the Gulf of Mexico, walruses along with sea otters, sea lions, and seals are among the "sensitive biological resources" that could be harmed by an oil discharge from its operations in the Gulf. The only problem is that walruses, sea otters, sea lions, and seals don't happen to live in the Gulf of Mexico, and haven't for a considerable period of time—like millions of years. The spill plan also lists a Japanese home shopping site as one of BP's primary providers of equipment for containing a spill, a dead professor as one of its wildlife experts to consult with in the event of spill, and other outrageous gaffes. BP was not alone in worrying about walruses. Chevron, ConocoPhillips, and ExxonMobil's oil discharge response plans in the Gulf of Mexico also listed those poor walruses as potential victims of a spill. The US government must have been worried about those walruses, too, since those in government accountable for reviewing and approving the oil companies' response plans didn't say a word about them. Maybe the US government officials at the Minerals Management Service decided that, even though walruses, sea otters, sea lions, and seals didn't currently live in the Gulf of Mexico, they might someday. Better to be safe than sorry, right? Well, the reality, of course, is that the oil companies outsourced the writing of their oil response plans to a consulting group, and didn't bother to read the plans to see if they made any sense. What worries me more is that the possibility that those responsible for risk management at the oil companies (and US government) did read these plans and didn't catch any of the errors. If that is the case, then we may have a deeply disturbing case of the Dunning-Kruger effect at work: the incompetence of oil company and government risk managers masked their ability to recognize their own incompetence at managing risk. 1 When drilling oil wells at ocean depths of 5,000 feet or more, risk-management competence is something I really want those oil companies and government officials that oversee them to possess. It is pretty clear that oil spill risk management wasn't taken seriously at all by BP, or by most of the other major oil companies drilling in the Gulf. In congressional hearings, oil industry officials admitted that the industry is poorly equipped to handle oil spills of any size in the Gulf, and that is why the industry tries to prevent spills from happening. The industry also viewed its oil-well blowout preventers as foolproof safety mechanisms, even though they fail regularly. However, the industry officials also admitted that less than 0.1% of corporate profits are spent on improving offshore drilling technologies, even as the risks of drilling offshore have increased significantly over the past decade. Oil spill risk management was not taken seriously by the US government, either. Even though the MMS has sponsored many, many studies into the risks of offshore drilling, no one seems to have bothered to read and then act on them. Like what used to be said about software reuse libraries, risk management reports were checked in but never checked out. We can only hope that risk management will be taken a wee bit more seriously in the future by both oil companies and the US government when it comes to drilling in deep water or other sensitive environmental areas, including those where walruses may actually live. However, I don't doubt for one minute that other industries pay other consulting companies to write their risk management reports as well—and don't bother to read them until after something goes terribly wrong. I see it all the time on IT projects, for example. So, I would like to propose that in the future, whenever risk management is incompetently performed, done just to meet some requirement, isn't taken seriously, or is plain lackadaisical, we describe it with the phrase, "Jumping the Walrus." Maybe that will remind those involved that the consequences and public ridicule are likely awaiting them next. 1. The Dunning-Kruger Effect basically says that incompetent people are too incompetent to realize they are incompetent. See: Kruger, Justin, and David Dunning. " Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one's own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 77(6), Dec 1999, 1121-1134. Appeared in the 1 July 2010 Cutter Consortium Enterprise Risk Management & Governance (ERM&G) E-Mail Advisor - used with permission. Robert Charette
Event occurred in March, but is only now coming out. Per the hospital's website [a]: Notification from Lincoln Hospital Sometime between March 16 and 24, 2010, a weekly shipment of seven duplicate compact disks (CDs) in the custody of FedEx, were lost while being transported to Lincoln Hospital. These CDs were created by Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc. ("Siemens"), a company that performs billing and claims processing for Lincoln. The missing CDs contained some protected health and personal information of patients including name, address, social security number, medical record number, patient number, health plan information, date of birth, dates of admission and discharge, diagnostic and procedural codes and descriptions, and possibly a driver's license number if provided. Some more info at the US Dep't of Health and Human Services [b]: Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center State: New York Business Associate Involved: Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc. Approx. # of Individuals Affected: 130,495 Date of Breach: 3/24/10 Type of Breach: Loss a. http://www.nyc.gov/html/hhc/lincoln/html/news/public_notice_20100604.shtml b. http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/hipaa/administrative/breachnotificationrule/postedbreaches.html [The hospital website says the CDs were "password protected". This seems to be of limited value. The more detailed letter linked to from the main website says that "... the CDs are not protected by a form of technology that renders them unreadable..."]
Perhaps this field on the card's IC chip is only one bit wide. In a worst case scenario, a cosmic ray comes down, flips the bit, and Grandma is a [Non/]Goner... http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2010/06/18/2003475777 "If passed by the [Taiwan] legislature, the law would enable terminally ill individuals with hospice and palliative medical care indicated on their health insurance cards[' IC chip] to request that physicians do not provide cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in the event of a cardiac arrest, even if they do not have the actual certification with them."
Ellen Messmer, *Network World*, 17 Jun 2010 http://www.networkworld.com/news/2010/061710-online-banking.html In online banking and payments, customers' PCs have become the Achilles' heel of the financial industry as cyber-crooks remotely take control of the computers to make unauthorized funds transfers, often to faraway places. That's what happened to the town of Poughkeepsie in New York earlier this year to the tune of $378,000 carried out in four unauthorized funds transfers from the town's account at TD Bank. First discovered in January, the town was able to finally get the full lost amount restored by March, according to public records, through sometimes tense interaction with the bank. Though the town declines to discuss the matter, this high-dollar cyberheist, along with a slew of other incidents in the past year, has many bank officials worried. They're concerned that the customer desktop, especially in business banking where dollar amounts are high, is increasingly the weak link in the chain of trust. Other cyberheists that have reached the public eye include Hillary Machinery of Plano, Texas, for $801,495; Patco Construction for $588,000; Unique Industrial for $1.2 million; and Ferma Corp. for $447,000. Schools and churches aren't immune, either. One FBI report from late last year said the agency gets several new victim complaints each week. [...] Jeremy Epstein, SRI International, 1100 Wilson Blvd, Suite 2800 Arlington VA 22209 email@example.com 703-247-8708
I'd like to see a campaign to change the nature of auto-updaters (such as MS Word or Adobe). I just had a piece of software run that claimed it was Adobe and wanted to do an update. I saw no way of confirming it really was from Adobe or that it updated the Adobe software with stuff it got from Adobe. It seems so ripe for abusers to spoof such programs. I would suggest that these features should only run from within the programs they intend to update. So, if I start up Adobe Acrobat, it will check for an update and allow me to do it now, or when the app is quit, etc. If my Adobe Acrobat is not yet compromised, then I can trust it (maybe!) to get a valid update and install it. But I don't want some other random program claiming to do an Adobe Acrobat update, but actually does other things it shouldn't. Lots of software already allows for updates from within the application. Let's get rid of separate updaters and update from within. [And I get skype messages claiming there's malware on my system and please click to upgrade. PGN]
http://www.dailytech.com/ATT+Accidentally+Shares+114000+iPad+3G+Buyers+Email+Addresses/article18670.htm Via the article: In what is one of the biggest leaks of e-mail addresses in recent history, a group called Goatse Security has published the personal e-mail addresses of 114,067 iPad 3G purchasers according to Gawker. The e-mail addresses were obtained in what appears to be a legal fashion by querying a public interface that AT&T accidentally left exposed. The names of victims immediately draw attention to the story. Among them are New York Times Co. CEO Janet Robinson, Diane Sawyer of ABC News, film mogul Harvey Weinstein, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg, and even White House Chief of Staff Rahm Emanuel. A number of CEOs, CFOs, and CTOs also had their e-mail addresses exposed by the leak.
The Ontario Privacy Commissioner has released a document detailing the best practices for protecting data: http://tinyurl.com/24q42qk http://www.ipc.on.ca/english/Resources/News-Releases/News-Releases-Summary/?id=968 Via: http://tinyurl.com/2a3kve4 http://blog.privcom.gc.ca/index.php/2010/06/16/you-might-be-interested-in-32/
Paul F. Roberts, Location services: The security risks of oversharing The vulnerability of Web applications and the sensitive nature of personal location information will prove a disastrous combination InfoWorld Home / *InfoWorld Tech Watch*, 17 Jun 2010 http://www.infoworld.com/t/mobile-security/location-services-the-security-risks-oversharing-457 Selected text: As soon as a new technology gets traction, smart criminals figure out a way to misapply it. And one of the hottest features in the mobile world, location awareness, is next in line for exploitation. Services like Foursquare, Loopt, and Gowalla, which combine user-generated reviews with social networking, provide particularly attractive targets. The idea is to use your mobile device to let your followers know in real time what cool places you're patronizing and the excellent food you're eating. Stores and shop owners love it—it's no-cost marketing in line with the current zeitgeist of user-driven info from people you trust. Targeted social engineering attacks that employ real-time or historical geolocation data. For example, an employee at a leading tech/pharma/defense contractor reveals, via Foursquare, his or her regular visits to the local coffee shop, where s/he is targeted by social engineers looking to gain access to the corporate network, or the victim of a real-world theft (laptop, mobile device) that yields sensitive data.
On Sunday afternoon I was setting up my new Father's Day present: a Garmin GPS-equipped wristwatch-type heart rate monitor. One of its neat features is that it can record all sorts of data about my runs: Distance, pace, heart rate, and even a map showing the route run during each workout. After I established the links for the Garmin to my PC--the company lets you save the data on your computer and/or on its Garmin Connect website--I found that records of five workouts from my watch had been uploaded into my new Garmin Connect account. This seemed odd to me, since I'd only used the watch once and I had erased that workout before connecting the heart-rate monitor to my PC. My first thought: This was dummy information pre-filled at the factory, or maybe the monitor had been tested before shipping. Upon closer inspection, I figured out that I had a slightly-used unit: Judging from the date and Google map that were part of each workout record, someone in Escondido, California had played with it briefly on Saturday, May 23, and then on May 24 had used it to monitor two separate 35-minute walks. My guess is that the person then decided he/she didn't like the Garmin and later sent it back to the online retailer from which my family ended up buying the unit for me. The really creepy part for me (and likely creepier for the previous user of the Garmin if he/she knew) is that I know exactly where that user lives. After I switched the Google Maps view to the aerial photo option, I could zoom in and see exactly which house on which street in Escondido the user walked out of before starting the timer. I could even see that the person exited the house through the back yard, not the front door. The RISKS? Well, the previous user of the Garmin, in a worst-case scenario, has just enabled a potential stalker. I remember reading somewhere (maybe it was on COMP.RISKS) about the potential dangers of entering your home address, rather than a nearby intersection, in the "Home" slot of GPS devices used for automobile navigation: Should someone steal a car with a GPS in it off the street or from a parking lot, the thief not only knows exactly where the owner lives, but also has reason to believe that the home is empty and unguarded. A more immediate (but less sinister) RISK, however, is to careless retailers who can't quite so easily get away with representing nearly new merchandise as absolutely new. When we called the seller to explain the situation, the company gave us the option of returning the unit for a brand-new one or keeping the current unit and taking a 20% refund. The unit seems to be working properly and looks new, so we took the refund. One reads a lot about how GPS can pose various RISKS to the user; in this case, it saved one user's family 30 bucks.
The GPS-while-walking story came up as a FB thread, with a consensus unfriendly to the walker. Here is my response, edited for brevity: "Unintended consequences are almost by definition not clear cut. Just a few of the mitigating issues here: 1) Following walking directions is not the same as simply going for a walk - one can start out along a path that is appropriate to one's competence and incrementally get further and further into trouble, perhaps well past a point of no return that makes it extremely unattractive to turn back. In this case the walker likely did not know that "Dear Valley Drive" was a highway until she reached that point. 2) One might be skeptical of the route depicted in the article - but could find other paths in city and countryside from coast-to-coast with much more subtle dangers for walkers. A service for drivers on roadways benefits from assumptions (of maintenance and standard signage, for instance) that don't apply for pedestrians. 3) Motor vehicles share a minimum level of competence (or are rendered illegal for public thoroughfares). Drivers must be licensed, as imperfect as that process is. The class "walkers" covers a vast range of physical capabilities. Perhaps we should know our own limits - but the only way to calibrate this against such a service (or against a map or a friend's directions) is trial and error. Each newly proffered path is a new adventure. 4) Given such factors, consider the implications of Leslie Lamport's classic white paper, "Buridan's Principle" (http://bit.ly/6KaFJi). Given a choice, a person can reach a point - must reach a point given the mean value theorem - in which either of two choices is acceptable, but dithering produces a catastrophe. I am positive that this one will show up on the ACM's RISKS Digest." Rob Seaman, National Optical Astronomy Observatory
http://www.gocomics.com/closetohome/2010/07/02/ --Steve Bellovin, http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~smb [Steve thought I might be amused by this seeming summary of many past GPS RISKS items. I thought our readers might also. PGN]
This makes more sense than some security measures: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CS9ptA3Ya9E [Somewhat regressive? But perhaps typical of popular misunderstanding of the risks by RISKS non-readers. PGN]
Today I received a small order from Amazon.com. I was happy with the item, but later my wife glanced at the packing slip and asked, "What IS all this stuff?" A quick look proved that there was no resemblance between what was actually in the box and the packing slip. Further, the packing slip contained the full name and address of the intended recipient. I got the wrong packing slip but the correct item. Without much work (whitepages.com and Facebook) I was able to find out the intended recipient's home phone number and full middle name. I imagine a little additional work would have revealed even more, but somehow having the word "stalker" attached to my name is not appealing. The RISK? Something we've heard all too often before. Emphasizing electronic security at the expense of physical security is not a good tradeoff. Oh, yes, when I tried to find a link on the Amazon web site to report this issue, I was confronted with thousands of links, mainly to FAQ pages. If I can figure out a way to contact the intended recipient of the packing slip without scaring them half to death, I plan to do so. Prof. Tony Lima, Dept. of Economics, CSU, East Bay, firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.cbe.csueastbay.edu/~alima (510) 885-3889
Burglars have always taken advantage of when people are away to perform breakins. A cruise line employee is charged with doing it using high tech assistance—looking through cruise line reservations to find empty houses. The string of burglaries was identified because all of the victims were on Royal Caribbean cruises at the time of the breakins. It was somewhat easier to identify her because she had used her access card to get into the cruise line's building and computers at odd hours. Of course the same technique is feasible with airline or hotel reservations, but I'm guessing it would be more work since people are more likely to leave an empty house when they go on a cruise than simply flying somewhere (which is less likely to be a whole family). Nothing really new - just updating an old criminal technique using new information gathering to "improve" the odds of success. http://www.cnn.com/2010/TRAVEL/06/11/vacationers.burglarized/index.html?hpt=T2
The perception that Linux is impervious to security attacks has taken a knock with the revelation that a popular open source version of IRC Server has been left open to attack for more than six months. http://news.techworld.com/security/3226723/linux-trojan-hits-unreal-irc-raises-malware-concerns/?olo=rss (Watch out for line breaks) and http://forums.unrealircd.com/viewtopic.php?t=6562 Mike R. Home: http://alpha.mike-r.com/ QOTD: http://alpha.mike-r.com/php/qotd.php
InfoWorld Home / Security Central / Security Adviser / Unintended cell phone calls put privacy at risk June 15, 2010 Unintended cell phone calls put privacy at risk Supersensitive touchscreens can lead to accidentally sharing conversations with the wrong people http://www.infoworld.com/d/security-central/unintended-cell-phone-calls-put-privacy-risk-158?source=IFWNLE_nlt_blogs_2010-06-15 Selected Paragraphs: I called my brother last week, and we had a 30-minute phone conversation. Over the next four days, and unbeknownst to him, his cell phone called me back five additional times. Once I could hear him talking work with a coworker. Another time he was talking with our mother. Two other times, it sounded like his wife and young kids were chatting. The most recent time was notable in that he was having a private interaction that I am pretty certain neither he nor his wife meant to be public. I wonder how many company conversations, work secrets, and personal affairs have been revealed by unintended dialing? Even more thought provoking: What type of feature would be needed to prevent it? I say this because my last two cell phones had features meant to prevent unwanted dialing, but they haven't proven to be 100 percent effective.
I strongly agree with the spirit of Steve Loughran's observation regarding the responsibilities of software engineering: There was also one incident triggered by corrupted data transfer between "terminals", causing the drilling rig getting invalid information about where it should be, causing it to move. That is something where the blame can be laid direct the door at we software developers. Checksums: they are there for a reason. But I take exception to the implication that additional bit length is always better for a specific application: Even basic CRC32 checks catch most problems, and while MD5 and SHA-1 checksums are starting to look cryptographically weak, they certainly catch data corruption. A cyclic redundancy check is more sensitive to certain bit errors than a 2's complement checksum - but is therefore rendered less sensitive to other bit pattern errors. Hashing is hashing, however. Even a 16-bit hash, appropriately used, will catch all but 1 in 65,000 errors (significantly more than "most"). A 32-bit hash can detect 1 in 4 billion errors. But how many errors any hash will *miss* depends on the likely frequency of errors. More frequent but shorter checksums may well be better than infrequent longer checksums. The resulting design questions key more on the logistics of implementing a checksum (or other error detection/correction coding technique) than on simply asserting that SHA-1 > MD5 > CRC > sum. In particular, cryptographic hashes are much more resource intensive than checksums. The 16-bit 1's complement checksum used by TCP/IP is surely the most widely deployed checksum on the planet. Its shortcomings are primarily a question of enforcing compliance. Brevity is appropriate for efficient handling of similarly brief messages. The 1's complement checksum also has the nifty feature of being embeddable in the protected packet. Whatever the hash functions, the engineering question they share in common is having detected corruption, what should the system do about it? A corrupted data transfer is either the result of a noisy channel or often of some more fundamental communications error. Checksums are a great tool for detecting problems - cleaning up those problems may require manual intervention. Rob Seaman, National Optical Astronomy Observatory
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