The Risks Digest

The RISKS Digest

Forum on Risks to the Public in Computers and Related Systems

ACM Committee on Computers and Public Policy, Peter G. Neumann, moderator

Volume 27 Issue 65

Thursday 19 December 2013

Contents

Harvard Student Charged In Bomb Hoax
CBS via Monty Solomon
Harvard student tried to dodge exam with bomb hoax
Bob Frankston
Keeping my front door off the Internet
Pertti Huuskonen
Do Google Glass users violate state laws against recording conversations permission?
Paul Alan Levy
UPS program delivers unnerving surprise
David Lazarus via Mark Brader
Brokers Trade on Sensitive Medical Data with Little Oversight, Senate Says
Elizabeth Dwoskin via Jim Reisert
Officials Say U.S. May Never Know Extent of Snowden's Leaks
Mazzetti/Schmidt via Matthew Kruk
Subject: 'We cannot trust' Intel and Via's chip-based crypto, FreeBSD developers say
Dan Goodin via Dewayne Hendricks
Someone's Been Siphoning Data Through a Huge Security Hole in the Internet
Kim Zetter via Dewayne Hendricks
"Trolls, orcs, and spooks: The breaching of World of Warcraft"
Robert X. Cringely via Gene Wirchenko
GCHQ Forced Secure Email Service PrivateSky to Shut Down
Dan Raywood via Dewayne Hendricks
"Adobe patches critical vulnerabilities in Flash Player, Shockwave"
Lucian Constantin via Gene Wirchenko
`Revenge porn' operator arrested, charged with ID theft
Joe Mullin via Lauren Weinstein
AOL/Facebook/Google/LinkedIn/Microsoft/Twitter/Yahoo
Reform Government Surveillance
Bots now running the Internet with 61 percent of Web traffic
Dara Kerr via Dewayne Hendricks
"Greed isn't good: 3 reasons not to bite on the bitcoin"
Robert X. Cringely via Gene Wirchenko
"Botched Black Tuesday patch KB 2887069 freezes, fails to configure, triggers a BSoD, and/or zaps sound drivers"
Woody Leonhard via Gene W.
Re: Confirming the MOOC Myth
Dennis E. Hamilton
Info on RISKS (comp.risks)

Harvard Student Charged In Bomb Hoax

Monty Solomon <monty@roscom.com>
Thu, 19 Dec 2013 01:28:06 -0500
BOSTON (CBS, 17 Dec 2013) - A Harvard student has been charged in connection
with Monday's bomb threats which shut down four Harvard buildings and
canceled finals for many students.  The U.S. Attorney's office says Eldo
Kim, 20, of Cambridge, e-mailed several bomb threats to offices associated
with Harvard University, including the Harvard University Police Department
and the *Harvard Crimson*, the student-run daily newspaper. ...

http://boston.cbslocal.com/2013/12/17/harvard-student-charged-in-bomb-hoax/

U.S Attorney's Complaint Against Kim
http://cbsboston.files.wordpress.com/2013/12/kimeldoharvard.pdf


Harvard student tried to dodge exam with bomb hoax

"Bob Frankston" <Bob19-0501@bobf.frankston.com>
19 Dec 2013 14:49:28 -0500
http://goo.gl/NrZgeY

It seems that the investigators simply correlated the Wi-Fi connection into
TOR with the time of the notification.  It's a reminder of how tricky
privacy is and how tools that seem to enable privacy create risks for those
who use them.  I worry about all the activists who naively assume they can
rely on tools, especially those obtained over the Web.


Keeping my front door off the Internet

Pertti Huuskonen <bertil@gmail.com>
Thu, 19 Dec 2013 14:51:55 +0200
Our home security provider advertises mobile clients for iPhone, Android and
Windows phones. Their app would give access to my house security and
automation, such as checking the inside temperature, switching lights on and
coffee makers off, the usual. More importantly, the app would notify me when
people arrive or leave home (identified via rfid keychain tags), and even
remotely open the doors and switch the alarm system on / off.

The app would talk to our home box via the Internet. (There is a mobile data
link too, but it seems to be just a backup when broadband /ADSL access
fails. It is used for operational data traffic to the security center, but
for remote access, wired Internet seems to be preferred).

Now, what do we have here: a system that can open my house to anyone and
monitor our goings, nicely accessible over the Internet. Moreover, their
client software runs e.g. on Androids, which are notorious for potential
malware infestations.

What could possibly go wrong...?

I inquired the provider about their security mechanisms. They (reasonably)
refused to give any information, citing them trade secrets.  They kindly
assured me that "the system data traffic is encrypted in every way". On
their website they offer not much more details, but note that "the fact that
we are responsible for our own design and development all mean that the
system is extremely secure and reliable".  There is no mention about the
expected security of the client platforms, or suchlike.

RISKS readers will see the risks, including: reliance on one company's
internal secrets (which may be leaked), the public Internet as the data
carrier for a security critical system, potentially risky client software
platforms, and keeping their customers calm with opaque safety claims.

While I hope these guys know what they are doing, and I'm sure they have
considered every possible threat scenario, they have sought to harden all
their systems for attacks, they must be aware of all the holes in the widely
used crypting techniques and they are able to function securely on a
platform full of holes and eavesdroppers.... would they stand a chance given
a determined inside-informed rogue attacker?

Sorry, but I will be keeping my front door off the Internet, thank you.  (I
will, however, keep it one-way connected to the security center via the
mobile data link. I consider the gains there larger than the risks.)

-- Pertti Huuskonen (bertil@gmail.com)


Do Google Glass users violate state laws against recording conversations without permission? (via Dave Farber)

<*Paul Alan Levy*>
Monday, December 9, 2013
http://pubcit.typepad.com/clpblog/2013/12/potential-liability-for-recording-conversations-by-google-glass.html

Paul Alan Levy, Public Citizen Litigation Group, 1600 20th Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20009 (202) 588-1000 http://www.citizen.org/Page.aspx?pid=396


UPS program delivers unnerving surprise (David Lazarus)

Mark Brader
Fri, 13 Dec 2013 22:18:09 -0500 (EST)
David Lazarus, Los Angeles Times, 28 Oct 2013
In a seemingly egregious privacy violation, UPS's My Choice program taps
into your past to cook up security questions.

http://articles.latimes.com/2013/oct/28/business/la-fi-lazarus-20131029

  [This is a real doozer, and is really shocking for a variety of reasons,
  not just the privacy issues.  If you are even thinking casually about
  subscribing to this service, PLEASE read the entire article first.  PGN]


Brokers Trade on Sensitive Medical Data with Little Oversight, Senate Says (Elizabeth Dwoskin)

Jim Reisert AD1C <jjreisert@alum.mit.edu>
Thu, 19 Dec 2013 14:23:29 -0700
Elizabeth Dwoskin, 18 Dec 2013

Marketers maintain databases that purport to track and sell the names of
people who have diabetes, depression, and osteoporosis, as well as how often
women visit a gynecologist, according to a Senate report published
Wednesday.

The companies are part of a multibillion-dollar industry of `data brokers'
that lives largely under the radar, the report says. The report by the
Senate Commerce Committee says individuals don't have a right to know what
types of data the companies collect, how people are placed in categories, or
who buys the information.

The report came in advance of a committee hearing on industry practices
Wednesday afternoon.

The report doesn't contain any new evidence of wrongdoing by the industry,
but it underscores the tremendous increase in the sale and availability of
consumer information in the digital age. An industry which began in the
1970s collecting data from public records to help marketers send direct mail
has become an engine of a global $120 billion digital-advertising industry,
helping marketers deliver increasingly targeted ads across the web and on
mobile phones.

http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2013/12/18/brokers-trade-on-sensitive-medical-data-with-little-oversight-senate-says/


Officials Say U.S. May Never Know Extent of Snowden's Leaks (Mazzetti/Schmidt)

"Matthew Kruk" <mkrukg@gmail.com>
Sun, 15 Dec 2013 03:21:48 -0700
Mark Mazzetti and Michael S. Schmidt, *The New York Times*, 15 Dec 2013

WASHINGTON - American intelligence and law enforcement investigators have
concluded that they may never know the entirety of what the former National
Security Agency contractor Edward J. Snowden extracted from classified
government computers before leaving the United States, according to senior
government officials.

Investigators remain in the dark about the extent of the data breach partly
because the N.S.A. facility in Hawaii where Mr. Snowden worked - unlike
other N.S.A. facilities - was not equipped with up-to-date software that
allows the spy agency to monitor which corners of its vast computer
landscape its employees are navigating at any given time.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/15/us/officials-say-us-may-never-know-extent-of-snowdens-leaks.html?nl=todaysheadlines&emc=edit_th_20131215


'We cannot trust' Intel and Via's chip-based crypto, FreeBSD developers say

Dewayne Hendricks <dewayne@warpspeed.com>
December 10, 2013 at 9:05:32 AM EST
Dan Goodin, Ars Technica, 10 Dec 2013
Following NSA leaks from Snowden, engineers lose faith in hardware randomness.
<http://arstechnica.com/security/2013/12/we-cannot-trust-intel-and-vias-chi=
p-based-crypto-freebsd-developers-say/>

Developers of the FreeBSD operating system will no longer allow users to
trust processors manufactured by Intel and Via Technologies as the sole
source of random numbers needed to generate cryptographic keys that can't
easily be cracked by government spies and other adversaries.

The change, which will be effective in the upcoming FreeBSD version 10.0,
comes three months after secret documents leaked by former National Security
Agency (NSA) subcontractor Edward Snowden said the US spy agency was able to
decode vast swaths of the Internet's encrypted traffic. Among other ways,
The New York Times, Pro Publica, and The Guardian reported in September, the
NSA and its British counterpart defeat encryption technologies by working
with chipmakers to insert backdoors, or cryptographic weaknesses, in their
products.

The revelations are having a direct effect on the way FreeBSD will use
hardware-based random number generators to seed the data used to ensure
cryptographic systems can't be easily broken by adversaries. Specifically,
"RDRAND" and "Padlock"=97RNGs provided by Intel and Via respectively=97will
no longer be the sources FreeBSD uses to directly feed random numbers into
the /dev/random engine used to generate random data in Unix-based operating
systems. Instead, it will be possible to use the pseudo random output of
RDRAND and Padlock to seed /dev/random only after it has passed through a
separate RNG algorithm known as "Yarrow." Yarrow, in turn, will add further
entropy to the data to ensure intentional backdoors, or unpatched
weaknesses, in the hardware generators can't be used by adversaries to
predict their output.

"For 10, we are going to backtrack and remove RDRAND and Padlock backends
and feed them into Yarrow instead of delivering their output directly to
/dev/random," FreeBSD developers said. "It will still be possible to access
hardware random number generators, that is, RDRAND, Padlock etc., directly
by inline assembly or by using OpenSSL from userland, if required, but we
cannot trust them any more."

In separate meeting minutes, developers specifically invoked Snowden's name
when discussing the change.

"Edward Snowdon [sic]—v. high probability of backdoors in some (HW)
RNGs," the notes read, referring to hardware RNGs. Then, alluding to the
Dual EC_DRBG RNG forged by the National Institute of Standards and
Technology and said to contain an NSA-engineered backdoor, the notes read:
"Including elliptic curve generator included in NIST. rdrand in ivbridge not
implemented by Intel... Cannot trust HW RNGs to provide good entropy
directly. (rdrand implemented in microcode. Intel will add opcode to go
directly to HW.) This means partial revert of some work on rdrand and
padlock."

RNGs are one of the most important ingredients in any secure cryptographic
system. They are akin to the dice shakers used in board games that ensure
the full range of randomness is contained in each roll. If adversaries can
reduce the amount of entropy an RNG produces or devise a way to predict some
of its output, they can frequently devise ways to crack the keys needed to
decrypt an otherwise unreadable message. A weakness in the /dev/random
engine found in Google's Android operating system, for instance, was the
root cause of a critical exploit that recently allowed thieves to pilfer
bitcoins out of a user's digital wallet. RDRAND is the source of random data
provided by Ivy Bridge and later versions of Intel processors. Padlock seeds
random data in chips made by Via. ...


Someone's Been Siphoning Data Through a Huge Security Hole in the Internet (Kim Zetter)

<*Dewayne Hendricks*>
Thursday, December 5, 2013
Kim Zetter, *WiReD*, 5 Dec 2013
<http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2013/12/bgp-hijacking-belarus-iceland/>

In 2008, two security researchers at the DefCon hacker conference
demonstrated a massive security vulnerability in the worldwide Internet
traffic-routing system—a vulnerability so severe that it could allow
intelligence agencies, corporate spies or criminals to intercept massive
amounts of data, or even tamper with it on the fly.

The traffic hijack, they showed, could be done in such a way that no one
would notice because the attackers could simply re-route the traffic to a
router they controlled, then forward it to its intended destination once
they were done with it, leaving no one the wiser about what had occurred.

Now, five years later, this is exactly what has occurred. Earlier this
year, researchers say, someone mysteriously hijacked Internet traffic
headed to government agencies, corporate offices and other recipients in
the U.S. and elsewhere and redirected it to Belarus and Iceland, before
sending it on its way to its legitimate destinations. They did so
repeatedly over several months. But luckily someone did notice.

And this may not be the first time it has occurred—just the first time
anyone has noticed.

Analysts at Renesys, a network monitoring firm, said that over several
months earlier this year someone diverted the traffic using the same
vulnerability in the so-called Border Gateway Protocol, or BGP, that the
two security researchers demonstrated in 2008. The BGP attack, a version of
the classic man-in-the-middle exploit, allows hijackers to fool other
routers into re-directing data to a system they control. When they finally
send it to its correct destination, neither the sender nor recipient is
aware that their data has made an unscheduled stop.

The stakes are potentially enormous, since once data is hijacked, the
perpetrator can copy and then comb through any unencrypted data freely --
reading email and spreadsheets, extracting credit card numbers, and
capturing vast amounts of sensitive information.

The attackers initiated the hijacks at least 38 times, grabbing traffic
from about 1,500 individual IP blocks—sometimes for minutes, other times
for days—and they did it in such a way that, researchers say, it couldn't
have been a mistake.

Renesys Senior Analyst Doug Madory says initially he thought the motive was
financial, since traffic destined for a large bank got sucked up in the
diversion. But then the hijackers began diverting traffic intended for the
foreign ministries of several countries he declined to name, as well as a
large VoIP provider in the U.S., and ISPs that process the Internet
communications of thousands of customers.

Although the intercepts originated from a number of different systems in
Belarus and Iceland, Renesys believes the hijacks are all related, and that
the hijackers may have altered the locations to obfuscate their activity.

“What makes a man-in-the-middle routing attack different from a simple
route hijack? Simply put, the traffic keeps flowing and everything looks
fine to the recipient,'' Renesys wrote in a blog post about the hijacks.
“It's possible to drag specific Internet traffic halfway around the world,
inspect it, modify it if desired, and send it on its way. Who needs
fiberoptic taps?''  ...

Dewayne-Net RSS Feed: <http://dewaynenet.wordpress.com/feed/>


"Trolls, orcs, and spooks: The breaching of World of Warcraft" (Robert X. Cringely)

Gene Wirchenko <genew@telus.net>
Tue, 10 Dec 2013 09:24:54 -0800
Robert X. Cringely, InfoWorld, 09 Dec 2013
Eight Internet giants have asked Congress to rein in the NSA --
but let's discuss the spies who may have pwned you online
http://www.infoworld.com/t/cringely/trolls-orcs-and-spooks-the-breaching-of-world-of-warcraft-232351


GCHQ Forced Secure Email Service PrivateSky to Shut Down (Dan Raywood)

Dewayne Hendricks <dewayne@warpspeed.com>
December 12, 2013 7:24:40 AM EST
Dan Raywood, *IB Times*, 11 Dec 2013 (DH via Dave Farber)
Security firm CertiVox forced to pull its PrivateSky secure email product
after GCHQ forced its hand over users' data.
<http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/articles/529392/20131211/gchq-forced-privatesky-secure-email-service-offline.htm>

PrivateSky was shut down at the beginning of the year after introducing a
web-based version in beta and for Outlook and had "tens of thousands of
heavily active users".

Brian Spector, CEO of CertiVox, told IT Security Guru: "Towards the end of
2012, we heard from the National Technical Assistance Centre (NTAC), a
division of GCHQ and a liaison with the Home Office, [that] they wanted the
keys to decrypt the customer data. We did it before Lavabit and Silent
Circle and it was before Snowden happened.

"So they had persons of interest they wanted to track and came with a Ripa
warrant signed by the home secretary. You have to comply with a Ripa warrant
or you go to jail.

"It is the same in the USA with FISMA, and it is essentially a national
security warrant. So in late 2012 we had the choice to make - either
architect the world's most secure encryption system on the planet, so secure
that CertiVox cannot see your data, or spend =A3500,000 building a backdoor
into the system to mainline data to GCHQ so they can mainline it over to the
NSA.

"It would be anti-ethical to the values and message we are selling our
customers in the first place."

Catastrophic invasion of privacy

Spector claimed that if CertiVox had complied with the warrant, it would be
a "catastrophic invasion of privacy" of users.

"Whether or not you agree or disagree with the UK and US government, this is
how it is and you have to comply with it," he added.

"We still have PrivateSky and run it internally for own use but we don't
allow anyone to access it."

He said that from the technology it has implemented a split of the root key
in the M-Pin technology so it has one half and the user has the other.

"So as far as I know we are the first to do that so if the NSA or GCHQ says
 'hand it over' we can comply as they cannot do anything with it until they
 have the other half, where the customer has control of it." [...]


"Adobe patches critical vulnerabilities in Flash Player, Shockwave" (Lucian Constantin)

Gene Wirchenko <genew@telus.net>
Fri, 13 Dec 2013 09:09:58 -0800
Lucian Constantin, Infoworld, 11 Dec 2013
An exploit targets one of the vulnerabilities by using Flash content
embedded in Microsoft Word documents, Adobe warns
Adobe patched several vulnerabilities in its Flash Player and
Shockwave Player on Tuesday, including one for which an exploit is
already available.
http://www.infoworld.com/d/security/adobe-patches-critical-vulnerabilities-in-flash-player-shockwave-232468


`Revenge porn' operator arrested, charged with ID theft (Joe Mullin)

Lauren Weinstein <lauren@vortex.com>
Tue, 10 Dec 2013 20:16:21 -0800
  Now, the owner of one revenge porn website is facing prison. Kevin
  Bollaert, a 27-year-old San Diego resident, was arrested today for running
  a website called ugotposted.com and has been charged with 31 counts of
  identity theft, extortion, and conspiracy. The suspect is being held in
  jail on $50,000 bail.  "This website published intimate photos of
  unsuspecting victims and turned their public humiliation and betrayal into
  a commodity with the potential to devastate lives," said California
  Attorney General Kamala Harris in a statement about today's
  arrest. "Online predators that profit from the extortion of private photos
  will be investigated and prosecuted for this reprehensible and illegal
  Internet activity."  Bollaert allegedly followed a business model similar
  to a now-defunct site run out of Colorado called IsAnybodyDown. According
  to court documents, he created ugotposted a year ago, inviting anyone to
  post nude pictures of others. Bollaert required that along with the photo,
  identifying information was posted, including a full name, location, age,
  and Facebook link.  Then, Bollaert refused to take the posts down-unless
  the pictured victims paid up.
    http://j.mp/IOHhCE  (Ars Technica via NNSquad)


AOL/Facebook/Google/LinkedIn/Microsoft/Twitter/Yahoo: "Reform Government Surveillance"

Lauren Weinstein <lauren@vortex.com>
Sun, 8 Dec 2013 22:52:21 -0800
  "The undersigned companies believe that it is time for the world's
  governments to address the practices and laws regulating government
  surveillance of individuals and access to their information."
    [http://reformgovernmentsurveillance.com via NNSquad]


Bots now running the Internet with 61 percent of Web traffic (Dara Kerr)

<*Dewayne Hendricks*>
Friday, December 13, 2013
Dara Kerr, CNET, 12 Dec 2013

Both good bots and bad bots can be found lurking online—looking to either
drive traffic or wreak havoc.
http://news.cnet.com/8301-1009_3-57615501-83/bots-now-running-the-internet-with-61-percent-of-web-traffic/

With much trepidation, I must report that there is a pretty good chance that
half the visitors to this story will not be human.

According to a recent study by Incapsula, more than 61 percent of all Web
traffic is now generated by bots, a 21 percent increase over 2012.

Much of this increase is due to "good bots," certified agents such as search
engines and Web performance tools. These friendly bots saw their proportion
of traffic increase from 20 percent to 31 percent.  Incapsula believes that
the growth of good bot traffic comes from increased activity of existing
bots, as well as new online services, like search engine optimization.  "For
instance, we see newly established SEO oriented services that crawl a site
at a rate of 30-50 daily visits or more," Incapsula wrote in a blog post.

But, along with the good comes the bad. That other 30 percent of bot traffic
is from malicious bots, including scrapers, hacking tools, spammers, and
impersonators. However, malicious bot traffic hasn't increased much over
2012 and spam bot activity has actually decreased from 2 percent to 0.5
percent.

Of the malicious bots, the `other impersonators' category has increased the
most—by 8 percent. According to Incapsula, this group of unclassified
bots is in the higher-tier of bot hierarchy—they have hostile intentions
and are most likely why there's been a noted increase in cyberattacks over
the last year.  "The common denominator for this group is that all of its
members are trying to assume someone else's identity," Incapsula wrote. "For
example, some of these bots use browser user-agents while others try to pass
themselves as search engine bots or agents of other legitimate services.
The goal is always the same—to infiltrate their way through the website's
security measures."

Here's to hoping the bot visitors that do come to this story are of the
benign kind.


"Greed isn't good: 3 reasons not to bite on the bitcoin" (Robert X. Cringely)

Gene Wirchenko <genew@telus.net>
Fri, 13 Dec 2013 11:21:28 -0800
Robert X. Cringely, InfoWorld, 13 Dec 2013
Bitcoin is blowing up, especially among the tech set, but the virtual
currency's strong points are also its liabilities
http://www.infoworld.com/t/cringely/greed-isnt-good-3-reasons-not-bite-the-bitcoin-232623


"Botched Black Tuesday patch KB 2887069 freezes, fails to configure, triggers a BSoD, and/or zaps sound drivers" (Woody Leonhard)

Gene Wirchenko <genew@telus.net>
Tue, 17 Dec 2013 10:21:14 -0800
Woody Leonhard | InfoWorld, 16 Dec 2013
Botched Black Tuesday patch KB 2887069 freezes, fails to configure,
triggers a BSoD, and/or zaps sound drivers
KB 2887069 patch went down the Automatic Update chute last week with
an array of problems, but there are workarounds
http://www.infoworld.com/t/microsoft-windows/botched-black-tuesday-patch-kb-2887069-freezes-fails-configure-triggers-bsod-andor-zaps-sound-drivers-232


Re: Confirming the MOOC Myth (RISKS-27.64)

"Dennis E. Hamilton" <dennis.hamilton@acm.org>
Thu, 19 Dec 2013 12:38:46 -0800
While there may be many who believe whatever the MOOC Myth is supposed to
be, it is also the case that refutations based on the alleged myth can be a
red herring that avoids some key issues.

First, those who entertain MOOCs are not from the same populations as those
who sit in our collegiate classrooms.  That strains the arguments
considerably.

Basically, MOOCs are more comparable to the availability of courses for
audit, but accessible on-line, for free or nominal charge, whether or not
offered on something like classroom schedules.

In addition, the courses are free or subject to small fees for verification
of identity of the participant (an experiment that I've participated in on
Coursera).

Having participated to various degrees in 7 MOOC offerings to date, leading
to 3 completions, I have a different perspective.

PROS:
 1. Asynchronous delivery and participation.

 2. Collegiate level material, but seldom any need for textbook expenses.

 3. Free to try, to audit, to sample, whether or not successfully completed.

 4. No penalty for do-overs and it is not unusual for multiple starts.  (My
7 included three starts leading to completion of the Stanford Introduction
to Cryptography, Part 1.  I would not be surprised for the eventual offering
of Part 2 to require multiple trials of the course.)

 5. Ability to calibrate ones interest and availability against the demands
of a course, and also determine how prepared someone is for the material or
not.  No risk for sampling, dabbling, or converting to some sort of personal
self-study.  (The Coursera videos are available for download and there's
evidently a pattern of this.)

 6. Students determine what success is for them.

 7. Intervention of the contingencies of life not representing a financial
loss.

 8. No student financial debt.

 9. Discussion forums and study-group formations that may provide some
social and mutual discovery support.

10. And, again, students determine what success is for them.  This can be an
opportunity for a student to conquer something valuable around what failure
means for them too.

11. No harm, no foul, whatever the measure for any statement of
accomplishment might be.

12. Appeal to adult learners, independent scholars, housebound,
geographically-distant individuals, and those who may want a tune-up or
structured familiarization with a subject of interest, including ones
somewhat over-qualified.

13. Feedback and observations in delivery of a course can lead to immediate
remedies and refinements for a future offering.

CONS:

 1. Unavailability of staff and teaching assistants, although there are some
courses where the on-line involvement of the lecturer is noteworthy and
there are experiments to create Community Teaching Assistants (CTAs) among
the participants who demonstrate their supportive use of the forums.

 2. Desire by many participants to treat MOOCs as some sort of certification
mechanism.

 3. Technology requirements and various technical difficulties, including
issues of accessibility.

 4. Not sufficient in themselves, so far, in reaching
underserved/disadvantaged populations.

 5. Students determine what success is for them. (Yes, some students have a
problem with this.  I am ignoring that non-participants and critics may have
as well.)

 6. In-person communication and group participation not generally available.

I can add that folks with poor study habits and no anticipation of and
avoidance of last-minute difficulties will not suddenly reform in attempting
a MOOC.  It is possible to learn from those experiences though, and that may
be valuable in itself.

For some extensive insights into how people learn, the unfamiliar approaches
that MOOCs may require, and also the different range of preparation and
expectations that participants bring, I recommend the introspective analysis
of Stanford Professor Keith Devlin following three offerings of his
"Introduction to Mathematical Thinking" course on Coursera:
<http://mooctalk.org/>.

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