[More on `business as usual', as noted in RISKS-28.76. PGN] The US Dept of Agriculture (USDA) had an outage, for about an hour. http://www.marketwatch.com/story/usda-website-back-online-after-outage-2015-07-09-11103195 There is speculation that WSJ went down 8 Jul because it was overloaded when people found out about NYSE down, then went there for more info. When we see something in the news, like some kind of disaster, and we go looking for more info or updates, it can seem like there is an epidemic of that kind of story. But many of them might not be at well known places. There were 4 Internet outages in progress, as I type this e-mail, impacting 360 websites. One of the more well known places is Amazon. Its outage started 9 Jul. 2 of the outages in North-Central Asia. There were over 2,000 web sites with outages in the past 24 hours. http://www.outageanalyzer.com/ Outages can hit just about anyone. http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/tag/outage/ Breaches continue at a high rate, and GAO has a report on a lack of cybersecurity within the U.S. banking industry, and by bank regulators. http://www.bankinfosecurity.com/gao-bank-risk-analysis-comes-up-short-a-8376 The FBI announces that it prevented multiple ISIL terrorist attacks from occurring on July-4. http://www.msn.com/en-us/news/us/fbi-says-thwarted-islamic-state-inspired-attacks-on-july-4/ar-AAcLwOv?ocid=iehp
http://takingnote.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/07/08/when-computers-go-down-its-not-always-a-hack/ We're too quick to blame hackers for failures like the one that disrupted trading on the New York Stock Exchange.
As the stoppage on Wednesday showed, the modern world of stock trading is much quicker, more complex and reliant on sophisticated computers—and in many cases able to adapt. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/09/business/dealbook/an-offline-nyse-makes-barely-a-ripple-in-a-days-trading.html
Dreadlocked programmer has spooked the FBI by creating a tool the police cannot crack. (Matt Green's students at Johns Hopkins could not break it.) http://www.wsj.com/articles/moxie-marlinspike-the-coder-who-encrypted-your-texts-1436486274?mod=LS1
http://www.wired.com/2015/07/massive-opm-hack-actually-affected-25-million/ "The team has now concluded with high confidence that sensitive information, including the Social Security Numbers (SSNs) of 21.5 million individuals, was stolen from the background investigation databases," OPM wrote in the statement. "This includes 19.7 million individuals that applied for a background investigation, and 1.8 million non-applicants, predominantly spouses or co-habitants of applicants." The stolen information includes about 1.1 million fingerprints as well as findings that investigators obtained from interviews conducted with neighbors, friends and family members for background checks. Such information can be highly sensitive since it can include knowledge about the drug and criminal history of someone undergoing a background check as well as their sexual orientation and relationships. Lauren Weinstein added: And the FBI says "trust us with your encrypted communications." Uh huh.
<http://it.slashdot.org/story/15/07/09/152257/openssl-patches-critical-certificate-forgery-bug> msm1267 <http://it.slashdot.org/%7Emsm1267> writes: *The mystery OpenSSL <http://openssl.org/> patch released today addresses a critical certificate validation issue where anyone with an untrusted TLS certificate can become a Certificate Authority <https://threatpost.com/openssl-patches-critical-certificate-validation-vulnerability/113703>. While serious, the good news according to the OpenSSL Project is that few downstream organizations have deployed the June update where the bug was introduced.* From the linked piece: *The vulnerability allows an attacker with an untrusted TLS certificate to be treated as a certificate authority and spoof another website. Attackers can use this scenario to redirect traffic, set up man-in-the-middle attacks, phishing schemes and anything else that compromises supposedly encrypted traffic. [Rich Salz, one of the developers] said there are no reports of public exploits.*
FYI—Outstanding (but long) article on the whole encryption debate. Probably the best single article to read to understand the history & current state of the debate. HB [It is extraordinarily well written, concise, and comprehensive. But I had to dramatically prune it for RISKS. PGN] A question that comes to mind: "Why is Comey & the FBI & the Obama Administration pushing so hard on this? The FBI & the White House certainly have access to computer scientists who have told them it isn't a workable idea, so it is odd that Comey would go so far out on this particular limb." My only answer is that Google/Apple/Facebook are extremely rich potential sources of campaign contributions, and sometimes it takes fear to open up those pocketbooks—look how Dodd-Frank opened up the wallets of the banks! Once the right candidates have been safely elected, President Obama is then free to add to his legacy by vetoing this "hackdoor" nonsense. Follow the link to follow the links in the original article. https://www.dailydot.com/politics/encryption-crypto-war-james-comey-fbi-privacy/ The rise of the new Crypto War By Eric Geller Jul 10, 2015, 7:00am CT | Last updated Jul 10, 2015, 2:41pm CT James B. Comey, Jr., the seventh director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, is afraid of the dark. “The law hasn't kept pace with technology, and this disconnect has created a significant public safety problem,'' Comey said in an Oct. 16, 2014, speech at the Brookings Institution, an influential Washington, D.C., think tank. He called the problem `going dark'. As more and more criminals presumably go dark by encrypting their phones and email accounts, federal agents are finding it increasingly difficult to intercept their communications. The spread of easy-to-use encryption software and the eagerness with which tech companies promote it have deeply troubled the FBI. But on that unusually warm October day, Comey also wanted to vent about another frustration: He felt that the bureau's proposed solution was being distorted. “There is a misconception that building a lawful intercept solution into a system requires a so-called backdoor, one that foreign adversaries and hackers may try to exploit. But that isn't true. We aren't seeking a backdoor approach. We want to use the front door, with clarity and transparency, and with clear guidance provided by law.'' He only used the word twice, but by strenuously denying that he wanted one, Comey had set off a fierce debate about the secret law-enforcement data-access portals known as backdoors. In the months that followed, Comey, his deputies at the FBI, and his counterparts at other agencies would face relentless questioning and criticism from skeptical members of Congress, exasperated security researchers, and outraged privacy groups. Despite Comey's protestations, many feared that the agency once known for its disturbing reach and systemic abuses of power in the era of J. Edgar Hoover was seeking a return to that fearsome omniscience in the digital age. The debate over backdoors has pitted Comey and other national-security officials against America's biggest tech companies, which have fired off letter after letter warning the government not to undermine encryption and the increasingly powerful security tools built into their products. It has strained relations between an obscure but important government technical body and the security industry that used to consider it a trusted partner. And it has infuriated the cryptography experts and civil-liberties activists who have spent decades beating back government efforts to weaken the encryption that is now vital to all aspects of online life. [...] Crypto Wars ... Backdoors ... CALEA ... The return of the Crypto Wars ... Universally derided ... letter to President Obama ... Keys Under Doormats report ... Divided government ... Eroding trust ... Heartbleed as a harbinger ... Private-sector pressure ... The murky way forward ... As CALEA-era arguments rear their heads again—the same words coming out of new mouths—Cindy Cohn sounded like a veteran military commander reluctantly gearing up once more. “We think the government was wrong then, and they're wrong now. But we may have to spend a lot of energy to fight a war that we already won.''
"most of the people responsible for safeguarding this information had essentially no background in IT" OK. Hire the best Beltway Bandit security firms that revolving door lobbyists can suggest. Check! "government needs to stop the bleeding ... every sensitive database ... must be immediately secured" OK. Strong encryption with Perfect Forward Secrecy. Load "every sensitive database in every government agency" into Apple iOS 8. Check! "Our government must completely reevaluate its cyber doctrine" OK. Immediately fire all those "cyber warriors" who thought that "deterrence" would work. Check! "playing defense is a losing game" Since deterrence obviously isn't working (and will never work), wouldn't "stopping the bleeding" include "playing defense" ? If you're not sure who to shoot at, perhaps your best strategy is to immediately put up better defenses ? The last time the U.S. started cyber shooting, the stray cyberbullets landed back in the U.S. as STUXNET mutant malware. "we need to send a clear message" OK. To whom should we send this message, and what should it say? I humbly suggest: "Pretty please, Mr. Lone Wolf (or whoever you are), we in the U.S. live in a glass house, so we can't throw stones at you, but we really, really dislike what you've been doing, and wish that you would stop—at least long enough for us to install some stronger glass." "We have to deter attacks from ever happening" Obviously, these spies were neither shaken nor deterred. Author: Senator Ben Sasse, 9 Jul 2015. https://www.wired.com/2015/07/senator-sasse-washington-still-isnt-taking-opm-breach-seriously/ The OPM Hack May Have Given China a Spy Recruiting Database As a newly elected Senator, I am here to tell you a hard truth: Washington does not take cybersecurity seriously. ... China may now have the largest spy-recruiting database in history. Bottom line: If you have any family or friends who work for the government and put your name down on an SF-86, a foreign government might well know a lot more about you and your kids than you'd like. [Excellent item... Read it in full, and hope that Senator Sasse gets listened to in the Senate! PGN]
This week, GAO Director of Information Security Gregory Wilshusen said at a House Science, Space, and Technology Subcommittee hearing that he isn't aware of any actions being taken to address the privacy risks (security flaws) of healthcare.gov data warehouse system, which includes SSNs, financial account information, and other personal information. http://science.house.gov/hearing/subcommittee-research-and-technology-and-subcommittee-oversight-hearing-opm-data-breach-tip Recent Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society Cybersecurity Survey says that 67% of the respondents reported a significant security incident. http://www.himss.org/2015-cybersecurity-survey
Lucian Constantin, InfoWorld, 29 Jun 2015 It only took four days for a recently patched vulnerability in Flash Player to start being used in large-scale attacks http://www.infoworld.com/article/2940445/security/cyber-criminals-adopt-recently-patched-zero-day-exploit-in-a-flash.html
Places where most cyber attacks were made today Jul 9: * USA * Mil/Gov * France * Russia * Ecuador * Liechtenstein * Singapore * Cyprus Places from which most cyber attacks originated today July-9: * China * USA * Russia * Bulgaria * Singapore * Mil/Gov * Netherlands * Canada See the map for more details. (Above listed from most attacks to smaller #s.) http://map.norsecorp.com/
HuffPost via NNSquad http://www.huffingtonpost.com/van-winkles/indias-supreme-court-may_b_7772084.html The land that gave us the Kama Sutra is having trouble with pornography. As the Times of India reported, India's Supreme Court is unhappy with the federal government's inaction in combating widespread Internet porn. Taking matters into its own hands, the Court is considering a blanket ban on all porn. Good luck with that, guys.
"For security teams on the campaigns, all this close contact between candidates and strangers can be a challenge, but in some ways it is easier to monitor than a traditional rope line. That is because selfies keep people's hands up where they can be seen." http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/05/us/politics/facing-a-selfie-election-presidential-hopefuls-grin-and-bear-it.html ...and of course, nobody requesting a selfie, holding an electronic gadget up to a candidate's head could have an explosive inside it. IED, indeed. Gabriel Goldberg, Computers and Publishing, Inc. firstname.lastname@example.org 3401 Silver Maple Place, Falls Church, VA 22042 (703) 204-0433
Amar Toor, *The Verge*, 8 Jul 2015 Interior ministry launches public safety campaign after at least 100 have been injured in the name of selfies http://www.theverge.com/2015/7/8/8911197/russia-selfie-safety-campaign
In trying to solve some problems, legislators often have the (unintended ?) consequences of creating new ones. Is my understanding now correct, that this law may have exempted some hosts of the digital data (phone company, computer owners, TV News) but not the people making the statements that cause offense, annoyance, hurt feelings etc., where there are no exceptions, based on type of person making the unwanted statements, such as politicians, civil servants, people in other nations? The US Supreme Court has declared that corporations are real people, so press releases, advertising, billing practices etc., by corporations, might be offensive to some people. If companies are not real people under NZ law, then maybe their feelings are not covered by this law. I wear a hearing aid. Does that mean that any communications I hear, arrived digitally? Stories in newspapers and magazines typically come from computer word processing, and modern electronic printing systems. Does that make them digital? Is info via a photo copy machine, fax machine, digital communications? If all of the above is yes, then New Zealand can now impose heavy fines & jail time, for many former legal activities: * Just about anything reported on police radio, or in police & DA records is offensive to the accused suspects, and offending anyone is now a crime. So police may need to return to systems they used before there was police radio. * Judges will need to be careful not to allow the introduction of evidence which went thru modern technology, like phone logs, because any suspect is offended by all evidence against them, but only non-digital now is legal to use against them. * Any courts, which in the past, used microphone for anyone testifying, so that there is a digital record, will need to stop doing that, because it is a digital communication of something which may offend the accused. Court rooms may need to be rearranged to help any hard of hearing on the jury. * Anyone who reports a crime or suspected crime (hurting terrorist's feelings is now a crime). Be careful when using 911 or 999. * Doctor inform a patient about a medical condition, which upsets the patient. No matter that they need to know the truth so that they can get proper treatment. (Hurting anyone feelings is now a crime, if the info involves digital communications.) * Conduct normal business communications of the kind of data used to identify your customer, such as their credit cards. (it is now a crime to communicate that data if anything digital is involved). Nowadays that info is almost always communicated electronically from retailer into banking system. * Fire an employee? That can upset the fired person. You better not have anything about this on the company's computers. Limit the info to pen and paper and verbal. If the fired person appeals to NZ equivalent of unemployment compensation or improper firing bureau, and it asks for info, the reply will need to be by snail mail. Avoid photocopy machine or fax machine, because that's digital communications. * Bill collectors will be a thing of the past. I don't think they can function without computer records, robo calls. * If Donald Trump ever visits NZ, he will be jailed for his remarks about Mexico (offensive to Mexicans, and others). His defense that his remarks are true, is irrelevant. The law does not say it is illegal or legal to say things which can be proven to be true or false, it says that if you make ANY remarks which are offensive to ANYONE, over any communication channel which by any interpretation can be called digital, even analog signals, that is illegal. * Any politician who opens his or her mouth, especially in an election, or debating the nation's business, probably offends someone. Did NZ politicians think to exempt themselves, as is common in USA? * In the USA, apartment leases frequently refer to laws about tenant rights, then insist that as a condition of getting this apartment, the tenant waives all those legal rights. Thus the landlord has an unfettered right to harass, annoy, offend any tenant. Does NZ have a similar system, where business contracts can absolve people of their legal rights? Many things posted anywhere on the Internet, lists like RISKS, no doubt offends someone. Lists may need to scrub NZ subscribers from their membership.
I did provide a link to the text of the act, but basically, yes. "an online content host" - must make it easy for people to complain about specific content If you don't do that, you're not protected. - must respond to a complaint within 48 hours - must communicate with "the author of the specific content" "as soon as practicable" (but within the 48 hours) - if the author doesn't respond with 48 hours, the content must be removed. > The US Supreme Court has declared that corporations are real people ... Under British law, companies (and ships) have been legal persons for centuries. NZ law is a branch of Common Law. However, this Act specifically defines "individual means a natural person". So yes, companies are not covered by this law. But the owners, officers, and employees of a company ARE. I AM NOT A LAWYER. So when I say that 4 "defendant ... means a person against whom an order is sought or made" does not say "natural person" or "individual", so it looks to *me* as if the defendant *can* be a juridical person, why, that opinion's worth every penny you paid for it. > I wear a hearing aid. Does that mean that any communications ... I think that would have to be tested in court. "Digital communication—(a) means any form of electronic communication"; whether a hearing aid is a form of electronic communication, especially if the other person is unaware of it, is an interesting question. This law has been in development for *years*; it's about 18 months since it left first draft status and entered Parliament for debate. As for stories in newspapers and magazines, a magazine I used to buy regularly has just this month ceased print distribution and now exists only on line, and the daily newspaper I read is also on line, every story. So it hardly matters how the print version would be classified; there is definitely a version which is communicated electronically to the general public. > If all of the above is yes, then New Zealand can now impose heavy fines & jail time, for many former legal activities. In principle, yes. Part of the Act is in force now, and the rest will commence when they get around to it but no later than 2 years; they've got to set up a new "Approved Agency" to receive complaints. Harassment (Harassment Act, 1997, see http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1997/0092/latest/DLM417078.html and defamation were already illegal. In particular, 4(1)(d) making contact with [the victim] (whether by telephone, correspondence, or in any other way); 4(1)(e) giving offensive material to [the victim], or leaving it where it will be found by, given to, or brought to the attention of, that person: 4(1)(f) acting in any other way (i) that causes [the victim] to fear for his or her safety; and (ii) that would cause a reasonable person in [the victim]'s particular circumstances to fear for his or her safety. would seem to cover a lot of it, except that just as the Harmful Digital Communications Act is too broad, the Harassment Act is too narrow: harassment has to be "a pattern of behaviour". Apparently one of the triggers for the development of the new Act was a case in which some clearly nasty behaviour was held not to be harassment because it only happened once. So the new act amends the Harassment Act to say that "doing any specified act to the other person that is *one continuing act* [such as placing offensive material about someone online] carried out over any period" also counts as harassment, and 4(1)(e) also now includes putting material on line. But I would still have thought that cyberbullying should have been covered as "a pattern of behaviour" under the original Harassment Act. > Just about anything reported on police radio, or in police & DA records is offensive to the accused suspects, and offending anyone is now a crime. ... Section 13 "Threshold for proceedings" does put some extremely vague limits on the seriousness of the alleged offence, and section 19 "Orders that may be made by court" says that 19 (5) In decided whether or not to make an order, and the form of an order, the court MUST take into account ... (b) the purpose of the communicator ... ... (g) whether the communication is in the public interest ..." The response to an initial complaint is either to dismiss the case or to order that the offensive behaviour stop; the criminal offence is to disobey such an order. > Judges will need to be careful not to allow the introduction of evidence which went thru modern technology, like phone logs, because any suspect is offended by all evidence against them, but only non-digital now is legal to use against them. I suspect that 19 (5) (b and g) come into play here again. But once again, I am not a lawyer, and my interpretation is not to be relied on. > Doctor inform a patient about a medical condition, which upsets the patient. I thought of that one too. > If Donald Trump ever visits NZ, he will be jailed for his remarks ... it says that if you make ANY remarks which are offensive to ANYONE, over any communication channel which by any interpretation can be called digital, even analog signals, that is illegal. If he kept on making such remarks after a court order to stop, yes. As it happens, such remarks have probably been illegal for years. Human Rights Act 1993, section 63, Racial harassment. (1) It shall be unlawful for any person to use language (whether written or spoken), or visual material, or physical behaviour, that -- (a) expresses hostility against, or brings into contempt or ridicule, any other person on the ground of the colour, race, or ethnic or natural originals of that person; and (b) is hurtful or offensive to that other person (whether or not that is conveyed to the first-mentioned person) and (c) is either repeated, or of such a significant nature, that it has a detrimental effect on that other person in respect of any of the areas into which this subsection is applied by subsection (2). I'll spare you subsection (2), but since Trump wants to keep Mexicans out of the country ("access to places") or at least out of jobs ("employment, which term includes unpaid work"), I think it's pretty clear that what he said was definitely illegal however disseminated. The Human Rights Act replaced the Race Relations Act 1971, which I believe said something similar. > Any politician who opens his or her mouth, especially in an election,... Did NZ politicians think to exempt themselves, as is common in USA? Perhaps the "public interest" provision? We may have to wait for a case to decide that... I repeat that I am not a lawyer. I have heard an expert say with respect to *consumer protection* laws that you can't sign away your rights. Ah. Residential Tenancies Act 1986, section 11(3): Any purported waiver by a tenant of any right or power conferred upon tenants by this Act shall be of no effect. Other business contracts are governed by other acts, but at least in the case of getting an apartment, such a waiver might scare the tenant but is "of no effect" if it goes to law. Indeed, the title of section 11 is "Act generally to apply despite contrary provisions". However, the landlord can waive *his* rights and powers. > Many things posted anywhere on the Internet, lists like RISKS, no doubt offends someone. Lists may need to scrub NZ subscribers from their membership. > New Zealand law does not bind people outside New Zealand. We don't have the numbers, the wealth, or the military power to lean on other countries the way, for example, the USA has leaned on the NZ legal system. So the RISKS Digest has nothing to fear.
Outages of Amazon AWS US EC2, Experian, HipChat, Instagram, Jobvite, Match, Netflix, Pinterest, Reddit, Tinder, Yelp, and Zions Bank were initially blamed on the leap second by Amazon, who later corrected their diagnosis: The root cause of this issue was an external Internet service provider incorrectly accepting a set of routes for some AWS addresses from a third-party who inadvertently advertised these routes. https://blog.thousandeyes.com/route-leak-causes-amazon-and-aws-outage analysis: “the root cause of this was not related to the fiber cuts, but in fact a route leak from Axcelx (AS33083), a data center provider in Boston. All of Amazon's prefixes originating in AS14618 were affected to some degree." Axcelx admits: "Our sincere apologies to everyone who experienced a route leak via AS33083 of AWS. We have a new prefix-list facing Hibernia." A large chunk of AWS US EC2 node traffic appears to have been misrouted via Hibernia Networks to Axcelx black hole. This failure highlighting the lack of BGP routing security could provide fodder for wider future DoS attacks or diversions for competitive or malicious reasons. See http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/business/2015/05/31/net-of-insecurity-part-2/ (part 2 of 3)
"Complacent, lazy"—there is a real risk in using a moral framing and short-circuiting critical thinking. Closely related is using ones implicit context and use cases and proof by example. In this case we have an intrinsic problem in representation that makes TimeSpan(1 minute) undefined. A source of the problem is the implicit assumption that there is a single kind of "time". I don't want to belabor the issue on this list beyond pointing out that we can have a stable base representation and, as with time zones, we can have explicit variations that have an adjust for the Earth's wobble. Other uses of "time" require different approaches. I encounter the problem of moral framing in connectivity policy which I see as a structural problem but that's another topic ...
> Out of a study of 20 smartphones, Samsung and Oppo were found to be the > worst culprits. A model of Samsung's Galaxy Note 3 contained 44 > pre-installed apps that could not be removed from the device, while Oppo's > X9007 phone had 71. I have/had a Samsung Galaxy Ace. I've renewed my contract and got a new phone in the last month or so. Why? Because, with only a few apps of my own choice installed, the phone is now so overloaded with bloatware that updates fail with "insufficient space on device". And that's with pretty much everything that CAN be moved, moved onto the 16Gb SD card.
This morning, my wife and I went into the Chilmark Library to see the art works of a childhood friend. On the New Books shelf, I stumbled onto a very new book—just published this month (July 2015): The Thrilling Adventures of LOVELACE and BABBAGE The (Mostly) True Story of the First Computer by Sydney Padua The third of three title pages looks something like this, with old fonts and many font sizes that I cannot begin to reproduce in ASCII: !!!! Triumphant Debut of !!!! ADA Countess of Lovelace, the Secret Origin! WITH the Celebrated and Ingenious Mechanician, Professor CHARLES BABBAGE and his Wonderful Calculating Machine The Tragical Conlusion Marvelously Averted by the Formation of A POCKET UNIVERSE to Be the Scene of Diverse Amusing & Thrilling Adventures With Humourous CUTS and Other PICTORIAL Embellishments! Sydney Padua has drawn on documents from Ada and Babbage, done some extraordinarily good research, augmented an amazingly clever presentation with extensive footnotes and some diagrams never previously published. For those of you not familiar with the early history of computing, this might be a good place to start. The first thirty pages are straight historical stuff, apparently very true to historical records—up to a brief relatively unhappy ending. However, from there on Padua has provided a delightful alternative (his)story. We have observed many times in The Risks Forum that some things don't change very rapidly. Many elements of hardware were present in Babbage's notion of the Difference Engine in the mid-1800s, and many elements of programming were present in Ada Lovelace's then-contemporary would-be software constructions. Cheers! Peter
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