The Risks Digest

The RISKS Digest

Forum on Risks to the Public in Computers and Related Systems

ACM Committee on Computers and Public Policy, Peter G. Neumann, moderator

Volume 29 Issue 23

Monday 25 January 2016

Contents

British Family Refused Entry To The USA —upgrade screwup
Chris J Brady
The Boston Globe delivery disaster caused by software
Steve Golson
Belgian Crelan Bank loses 75.8-million dollars in CEO fraud
Al Mac
Re: Why no secure architectures in commodity systems?
Mark Thorson
Michael Marking
Re: Ballot Battles: The History of Disputed Elections in the U.S.
Amos Shapir
Internet of Things security is so bad, there's a search engine for sleeping kids
Ars Technica
Info on RISKS (comp.risks)

British Family Refused Entry To The USA—upgrade screwup

Chris J Brady <chrisjbrady@yahoo.com>
Sun, 24 Jan 2016 21:13:03 +0000 (UTC)
'Rip Off Britain—Holidays' is a popular BBC TV consumer rights programme.

 [This is another instance of the old calendar confusion between U.S. and
 elsewhere, which keeps arising in RISKS: month/day/year vs day/month/year;
 whereas year/month/day is less common, it is much less ambiguous, and
 mathematically sound.  In RISKS, we long ago decided on dd/MON/year.  PGN]

This week—in Series 4 Episode 7—it featured a young family who had
previously visited the USA and now wanted to visit again. Their previous
Esta Visas had expired so they applied online for new ones—at cost.

However the new Visas were refused. When they enquired the only reason given
was that they had apparently over-stayed their visas on their last visit.

In its inimitable way Homeland Security (whoever) were adamant that the
refusal was correct. The family were equally adamant that they had done
nothing wrong. They were also in danger of losing all of their holiday
bookings because their travel insurance wouldn't pay out over 'visa refusal
issues.'

Eventually after help from the BBC it transpired that when they had departed
from JFK Airport the previous time the date was 08-01-2013, i.e., 8th
January 2013. A few days afterwards their Esta Visas then expired. All well
and good, right? Well no!!

At the date of their departure from JFK a new computer system had just been
implemented by a British company. And in an amount of mind-boggling
incompetence the system had been set up to record departure dates in the UK
format of day-month-year. However the US authorities had interpreted these
dates as month-day-year. This meant that as far as the US was concerned they
had departed on August 1st 2013—effectively overstaying their visas.

What is even more mind boggling is that the US authorities would not believe
that such a mistake had been made. It was only after the intervention of the
BBC (see the programme) that the US agreed to look into the case. Even then
the family had to provide a large number of documents including their
passports, old ticket receipts, etc., to prove that they had in fact left
the USA within the validity of their Esta visas.

The programme is at http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b06wp9pk if you have
access to play it.


The Boston Globe delivery disaster caused by software

Steve Golson <sgolson@trilobyte.com>
Sun, 24 Jan 2016 20:01:14 -0500
*The Boston Globe* recently changed distributors for its print edition, and
the cutover has not gone well.

  Delivery problems with *The Boston Globe*’s new circulation service
  affected up to 10 percent of newspaper subscribers, and it could take four
  to six months before service returns to normal, the Globe reports.

http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/2016/01/04/boston-globe-delivery-problems-could-last-months-distributor-says/mv1aQZYpZMIdva1YfPKg3N/story.html

  ...at least 2,000 subscribers have canceled their Globe subscriptions as
  a result of the delivery debacle, which the parties blame both on a
  shortage of drivers and software that mapped out paper routes confusingly.

http://www.bu.edu/today/2016/whither-newspapers-or-should-that-be-withered/

  ...many of ACI’s new delivery routes lack any logical sequence, leaving
  drivers criss-crossing communities and making repeated trips to the same
  neighborhoods.

http://www.bostonglobe.com/business/2016/01/03/deliveries/wrEYnoz9F6XFEZeIkTzMQL/story.html

  “We were crossing intersections that we had crossed just a few minutes
  before to deliver newspapers in one section of Brookline, then back to the
  other,” she said. “It was, it was dizzying. It was not arranged in a
  geographical way. And I can see why any new driver would have a difficult
  time getting to the right location.”

https://www.wbur.org/2016/01/05/boston-globe-delivery

Boston Globe owner John W. Henry was forced to issue this public
apology/explanation:

https://www.bostonglobe.com/opinion/2016/01/05/apologize-our-loyal-readers/S0uNqQOjkx3UD7jD3WbbgL/story.html

The new distributor is based in California, and apparently has no experience
with the maze of twisty little passages that is our road network in New
England.

RISK 1: Test your software in the target environment.

RISK 2: Don't cutover everything at once.


Belgian Crelan Bank loses 75.8-million dollars in CEO fraud

"Alister Wm Macintyre" <macwheel99@wowway.com>
Mon, 25 Jan 2016 13:23:54 -0600
I have seen many stories like this one—a form of social engineering
against top C-level executives, with mind boggling sums stolen, for which no
current insurance system can pay them back.

Actually I am somewhat happy to see this happening.  In my career, C-level
executives have been 99% responsible for my day jobs having inadequate
security, and violations of protections against breaches, because they have
been in absolute denial of security advisories from me, my IT-co-workers,
and outside IT-security vendors.  If anything can teach them to become
risk-educated, this epidemic may.

This particular outfit is using this kind of story as an effective marketing
technique.  For similar recent stories from them, see:

https://blog.knowbe4.com/ceo-fraud-costs-boeing-vendor-54-million-dollars
https://blog.knowbe4.com/credit-union-chilling-ceo-fraud-story
https://blog.knowbe4.com/scam-of-the-week-phish-with-hidden-sting
https://blog.knowbe4.com/paychex-60-of-hacked-smbs-are-out-of-business-6-months-later

> Date: Monday, January 25, 2016 9:50 AM
> From: Stu Sjouwerman [mailto:stus@knowbe4.com]

The Belgian Crelan Bank was the victim of a 70-million euro (75.8M U.S.)
fraud that was launched from another country.  They claim (PDF) this CEO
Fraud was discovered during an internal audit and does not affect their
viability.

The bank said: "As a result of these facts, we took additional, exceptional
measures to strengthen our internal security procedures. We informed the
justice department and we are investigating this incident.  Existing
customers are not impacted."

Luc Versele, CEO of Crelan was quoted: “Looking at our historic reserves,
Crelan can shoulder this fraud without any negative impact for our customers
and affiliates. We are still viable and our total capital is 1,1 Billion
Euro.''

CEO Fraud, also called Business Email Compromise is the next cybercrime
wave, as per the FBI who recently warned that this has cost small and medium
enterprises 1.2 billion dollars in damages between October 2013 and August
2015.  C-level employees, especially CEOs and CFOs, have to be aware of the
various techniques the scammers are using to trick them into wiring out
large amounts of money.

Most small and medium enterprises do not know that they are not FDIC-insured
like consumers, and that their cyber security insurance (if they even have
it) also may not cover this specific type of fraud, because no IT
infrastructure was compromised.

What you can do about it:

1. Alert your execs. These scams are getting more sophisticated by the month
and be on the lookout.

2. Review your Wire Transfer security policies and procedures.

3. Grab this Social Engineering Red Flags PDF, print and laminate it, and
   give it to your C-level execs (free).

4. Read the IC3 Alert in full, and apply their Suggestions For
   Protection. You can find it here. Copy and paste this link in your
   browser to get to their website:
   https://www.ic3.gov/media/2015/150122.aspx?

Obviously all your employees need to be stepped through effective security
awareness training to prevent social engineering attacks like this from
getting through.  Find out how affordable this is for your organization
today and be pleasantly surprised. [...]


Re: Why no secure architectures in commodity systems? (Sizemore, RISKS-29.22)

Mark Thorson <eee@sonic.net>
Sun, 24 Jan 2016 23:25:25 -0800
Although many systems with hardware security have been proposed over the
years—mostly capability architectures—part of the problem is that
we've never had a comprehensive solution in which we can place high
confidence.  That sort of confidence can only come from fielding a system
into the real world and learning what are its deficiencies and weaknesses
from handling real-world workloads and adversaries.  And then, acceptance
would require rewriting all of our applications to run on this secure
architecture.  It seems unlikely this can happen any time soon.

  [Mark, I beg to differ.  See the CHERI hardware-software capability-based
  system architecture, which provides a hybrid solution allowing legacy code
  to run in confined environments that cannot compromise the rest of the
  system.  https://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/research/security/ctsrd/ and
  http://www.csl.sri.com/neumann .  PGN]

Capability architectures have fine-grained control over access to protected
objects.  You can't just scribble some data on the stack and jump to it, or
if you can it won't do you any good because you're still inside a highly
protected environment.  This prevents many important classes of attacks.  In
the architectures we use today, if you pierce the protection model anywhere
you pierce it everywhere.  You can execute anything you like on any data you
like.

But a capability architecture doesn't protect against all kinds of attacks.
If your architecture doesn't allow arbitrary binary executable code to be
injected, what if the trusted executable code is a javascript or SQL
interpreter?  That code takes in data and interprets it as instructions, so
the opportunity still exists for malicious code to exist within a capability
architecture ecosystem if the interpreter has flaws.

I agree that a capability architecture would be preferable to the
eggshell-thin protection model used today, but viable capability
architectures were not available (or not with high confidence that they were
ready) when the present architectures arose, and it's too late now to change
the course of history.

An advantage of the current protection model is that everybody knows how
dangerous it is.  Anyone who cares about security knows they always have to
assume somehow an attacker will overflow a buffer and execute malicious code
with supervisor privileges or hammer a DRAM row and flip a protection bit on
a page table entry.  They will never be able to become complacent because
it's a capability architecture, the OS kernel has a formal proof of program
correctness, and all the executable code is trusted.  Paranoia is a security
layer of its own and perhaps the best of all.


Re: Why no secure architectures in commodity systems? (Sizemore, RISKS-29.22)

Michael Marking <marking@tatanka.com>
Mon, 25 Jan 2016 05:43:54 +0000
Before my response proper, two comments:
(1) I apologize in advance for what probably could be considerably shorter.
(2) I expect that most readers of this list will agree that we can't foresee
    all of the holes in a system, so even the best system we can make, will
    only be secure until we discover the ways it is flawed. (This list
    teaches humility, but it's pretty damn funny at times, too.)

  [I have removed all the interstitiated comments from Sizemore.
  If this is confusing, please refer back to RISKS-29.22.  PGN]

I'm responding as a systems designer and developer, with some work in the
security-related aspects of other areas. I'm not a security researcher, but
believe that security requires an holistic approach. I'm not an expert, so
don't take my comments as authoritative.

Don't expect the people who participated in a problem's creation, to be the
ones to solve it. ;-)

Complete "security" isn't obtainable. We can only approach it, we can never
truly reach it. We can't prove consistency in mathematics from within a
system (Godel's theorem), we can't prove that a message was received without
error (although we can be sure with vanishingly small probability of error),
and there is no such thing as scientific "proof" (so the best we can do is a
well-accepted theorem). It's all relative.  So what does "truly secure"
mean? We don't even have a good definition of ideal security.

Worse, your security isn't my security, so any definition is relative to
specific users.

(BTW, Multics was tres cool.)

Yes we could get very close to security if the system were open, but no
system is completely open. We may get to observe the design process, but we
don't have enough eyes to see it all the way to implementation and to
manufacturing. Even if most actors are both ethical (whatever that means)
and competent (again), there are always some bad actors. It's a long way
from a specification to a product, and I can't completely trust that there
are enough eyeballs to catch all of the mistakes and the mischief. How do I
know that the circuit I bought from a supplier is the same one that was
specified and designed?

(Paranoia is an occupational hazard here.)

The benefits from installing backdoors and from compromising the design
might be worth that process, too. Do you know any such consortium you
wouldn't also expect to be paranoid and mistrusting, also?

I don't think that anyone has thus discovered or concluded, but we have to
work in a presumed hostile environment. So we develop mechanisms for
exchanging keys in the clear, for doing secure computations in the open, for
saving keys when memory can't be securely erased, and so on. These
procedures can be reviewed. We're surrounded by the (presumed) enemy, but we
must move forward as best we can. The nature of the beast is that every
aspect of the system is not *completely* trustworthy, and that no component
is completely reliable.

I often avoid flash memory, for example, because I don't have a lot of
confidence that it can be erased (due to load-leveling mechanisms with
unpublished interfaces). Of course, a spinning magnetic disk might have some
malicious circuit in it, to capture private data, but I've just concluded
that it's less likely. Not much, but that's all I've got to work with. So I
just include the risk in the release notes, and do what I can.

One big problem with depending on "secure" hardware is that it violates a
principle I consider axiomatic: at least half of the risk is from the
"inside". A detective knows that the murderer in a homicide case was
probably close to the victim. A forensic accountant knows that the thief was
probably on the inside, or at least had an accomplice on the inside.  You
(the statistical "you") are more likely to die at the hands of your
countrymen than because of foreign enemies. And so on. I couldn't bring
myself to trust all of the insiders, and I'd still spend half my security
time looking for the threat from the inside.

Finally, after years of working with both hardare and software, I concluded
long ago that there is no bright line between them. They're both parts of
bigger systems, and you can't make secure hardware without secure software
and vice versa. Even more, the applications are part of the same system as
the kernels and drivers and other platform components, and I suspect that
you can't have a provably secure platform any more than you could have a
provable secure application, unless it's all taken together along with the
user environment and so on. We can move toward the "secure horizon", but
it's like steering a ship by the stars, we won't ever reach it.

I completely agree that a secure architecture would *greatly* increase the
difficulty of routine penetration activities. I believe, however, that there
is little incentive in many quarters to develop such architectures. There
are some good, isolated efforts to develop better systems.

I like SELinux, for example, but even the folks at the NSA can't agree on
whether or not we should have backdoors in systems. If the President and the
director of the NSA and the joint chiefs of staff came down on the side of
"no backdoors", there'd still be some effort from the inside to sabotage the
effort, I promise.

Even when good (though imperfect) solutions exist, security is almost always
an inconvenience, if not an impediment to profits, control, and dominance,
so the use of the solution is restricted. It would be easy for Google to
prevent a lot of spyware from running on Android devices, for instance, but
it's not in their best interests to do it. Your average user can't even be
bothered to create a random password, never mind to configure access
permissions. Most network routers offer SPI firewalls, but how many work in
the opposite direction, to prevent, say, the images from your surveillance
cameras from escaping to the outside?

So what we have to work with are some good components we can use along with
some necessary bad components to build systems which we hope are secure. In
this day and age, you still can't trust most software, and most customers,
users, and employers in practice will put security near the bottom of their
priorities list, making it uneconomical to build more secure (or more
reliable) systems.

Even when I've been asked to do security audits, the customers usually don't
care about many of the conclusions. An audit is most of the time merely
another checklist item. Yes, I know many of the vulnerabilities are highly
unlikely to be significant, but even the glaring ones are ignored often as
not.

Ultimately, because most people don't care—at least enough to pay the
price --, the markets don't support better components or better products.

While I'm waiting for all of those secure platforms, I'll continue to
develop for the insecure environments available to me now. I'm not holding
my breath. I'll support the components which are secure, but security is too
often a weakest link thing: if you bar one window, the burglar will enter
through a different window, and few people want to live with bars on *all*
of their windows.

In other words, we have no choice but to work in handicapped environments.
"Excuse me, Mr Burglar, please wait a moment while I locate my revolver and
load it..." It's a cracker's festival out there, and they're not going to
hold the party while we get our acts together.  Sometimes our jobs are more
like emergency room activities than they are like preventative medicine, but
the patients keep coming into the doors.

Meanwhile, I've never seen a good, practical definition of security, which
isn't subject to interpretation. To me, efforts like the various trusted
computing initiatives are great, but without the interpretation they sound
like a lot of mumbo-jumbo. What they don't say is deafening.  I'm convinced
that many of the behind-the-scenes motives aren't really about security at
all, but, rather about marketing, DRM (for one's own "intellectual
property", anyway), profits, and such. Honestly, I like formal methods, but
in the real world they haven't yet arrived at practicality. Look at the
various military efforts to define and to organize security and to develop
secure systems: They're sometimes awesome, we can learn from them, but they
change every few years because every previous version has proven inadequate
(not necessarily wrong, more often only limited). Yes, the military are
often still fighting the previous war, not the current one, but they have
unlimited budgets (by our standards), significant incentives, better and
enforceable organizational abilities... and they're still trying to find --
let alone to hit—the target. (Don't mean to pick on them, they're just a
good example. Don't see many better practical examples, actually.)

I make a prediction: computer-related security will be as different X years
from now as it is now from where it was X years ago. Remember when virus
checkers and owner/group/world permissions were advanced stuff?  Today's
secure system is tomorrow's quaint example of naive misperceptions.
Misperceptions will be shown, in time, to be universal.  Hopefully, we can
laugh at ourselves when we're ready to leave these lives for the next ones.

Nicky, Your questions are reasonable, and, frankly, I don't think they're
addressed well in any of the books or journals on my shelves (or on my
computer).  Only rarely does the scope of the analysis include the complete
political and economic dimensions of the context.

I don't mean to sound arrogant or dismissive of your inquiry, but (in case
it doesn't show) I've grown cynical and frustrated over the years, not so
much because of the technologies (this if fun stuff!) but because of the
politics. I'm *sure* (sarcasm here...) that if the job were left to us
technologists, theorists, engineers, and scientists, and taken away from the
sociopathic oligarchy, then things would be *much* better in the world.


Re: Ballot Battles: The History of Disputed Elections in the U.S. (Smith, RISKS-29.22)

Amos Shapir <amos083@gmail.com>
Mon, 25 Jan 2016 18:24:53 +0200
While Mark E. Smith's ideas are laudable, I'm afraid the end result might
be a political version of Wikipedia.

"The will of the people" is not a very well defined term, and rather
unreliable.  It has been shown time and again to be very susceptible to
cheap tricks.

What we need is a way to make elected officials behave like responsible
adults;  I'm not sure there is a provable scheme to ensure that.


Internet of Things security is so bad, there's a search engine for sleeping kids (Ars Technica)

Lauren Weinstein <lauren@vortex.com>
Sat, 23 Jan 2016 12:24:22 -0800
Ars Technica via NNSquad
http://arstechnica.com/security/2016/01/how-to-search-the-internet-of-things-for-photos-of-sleeping-babies/

  Shodan, a search engine for the Internet of Things (IoT), recently
  launched a new section that lets users easily browse vulnerable webcams.
  The feed includes images of marijuana plantations, back rooms of banks,
  children, kitchens, living rooms, garages, front gardens, back gardens,
  ski slopes, swimming pools, colleges and schools, laboratories, and cash
  register cameras in retail stores, according to Dan Tentler, a security
  researcher who has spent several years investigating webcam security.
  "It's all over the place," he told Ars Technica UK. "Practically
  everything you can think of."  We did a quick search and turned up some
  alarming results ...

If industry can't deal with this correctly, government will try to force the
issue *their* way. And you know what *that* means.

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