The Risks Digest

The RISKS Digest

Forum on Risks to the Public in Computers and Related Systems

ACM Committee on Computers and Public Policy, Peter G. Neumann, moderator

Volume 29 Issue 39

Wednesday 23 March 2016

Contents

Why Hackers Might Help FBI and not Apple
Perlroth/Benner
Re: Why Hackers Might Help FBI and not Apple: Cellebrite
PGN
Radio Attack Lets Hackers Steal 24 Different Car Models
Andy Greenberg
Steven Sprague
James Hughes
Re: American Express 3rd-party breach
John Levine
Re: Ukraine Electric SANS Report
Peter Bernard Ladkin
Way to Go, FCC. Now Manufacturers Are Locking Down Routers
WiReD via Lauren Weinstein
New York has just opened a massive public spying network
Kirsty Styles
Utilization at Internet Interconnection Points
Nick Feamster
Info on RISKS (comp.risks)

Why Hackers Might Help FBI and not Apple (Perlroth/Benner)

"Peter G. Neumann" <neumann@csl.sri.com>
Wed, 23 Mar 2016 11:01:09 PDT
Nicole Perlroth and Katie Benner, *The New York Times*, 23 March 2016

Excerpts (lightly PGN-ed):

Google, Microsoft, Facebook, Twitter, Mozilla and many other tech companies
all pay outside hackers two turn over bugs in their products and systems.
Uber began a new bug bounty program [yesterday].  Google has paid outside
hackers more than $6M since it announced a bug bounty program in 2010, and
last week doubled its top reward to $100,000 for anyone who can break into
Chromebook.

Yet Apple has yet to give hackers anything more than a gold star.  When
hackers turn over serious flaws in its products, they may see their name(s)
listed on the company's website. ... Apple could now be doing more,
especially in this day and age where the conventions of finding bugs and
fixing them have changed.  Just this week, researchers at JHU uncovered a
flaw that would allow attackers to decrypt the contents of photos and videos
attached in Apple's iMessage program.  [Actually, they reported it to Apple
back in December, but diligently withheld announcing it publicly until Apple
had fixed it.] ...

Jay Kaplan, former NSA analysis and co-founder of Synack: “Apple can
embrace security researchers, or try to facilitate programs that will secure
its operating system, but it's never going to be able to compete with what
is going on behind the scenes in the black market.  It's just not going to
happen.''


Re: Why Hackers Might Help FBI and not Apple: Cellebrite

"Peter G. Neumann" <neumann@csl.sri.com>
Wed, 23 Mar 2016 12:02:13 PDT
An Israeli newspaper has reported that data forensics experts at
Cellebrite are involved in the case.  [PGN-ed]
http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4782246,00.html
http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-35883441

Cellebrite told the BBC that it works with the FBI but would not say more.
However, its website states that one of its tools can extract and decode
data from the iPhone 5C—the model in question—among other locked
handsets.
<http://www.cellebrite.com/Pages/ios-forensics-physical-extraction-decoding-and-analysis-from-ios-devices>

  “File system extractions, decoding and analysis can be performed on
  locked iOS devices with a simple or complex passcode," Cellebrite's site
  states. ... Simple passcodes will be recovered during the physical
  extraction process and enable access to emails and keychain passwords. ...
  If a complex password is set on the device, physical extraction can be
  performed without access to emails and keychain.''


Radio Attack Lets Hackers Steal 24 Different Car Models

Hendricks Dewayne <dewayne@warpspeed.com>
Tue, Mar 22, 2016 at 10:18 AM
Andy Greenberg, *WiReD*, 21 Mar 2016
http://www.wired.com/2016/03/study-finds-24-car-models-open-unlocking-ignition-hack/

For years, car owners with keyless entry systems have reported thieves
approaching their vehicles with mysterious devices and effortlessly opening
them in seconds. After having his Prius burgled repeatedly outside his Los
Angeles home, the New York Times' former tech columnist Nick Bilton came to
the conclusion that the thieves must be amplifying the signal from the key
fob in the house to trick his car's keyless entry system into thinking the
key was in the thieves' hand. He eventually resorted to keeping his keys in
the freezer.

Now a group of German vehicle security researchers has released new findings
about the extent of that wireless key hack, and their work ought to convince
hundreds of thousands of drivers to keep their car keys next to their
Pudding Pops. The Munich-based automobile club ADAC late last week made
public a study it had performed on dozens of cars to test a radio
*amplification attack* that silently extends the range of unwitting drivers'
wireless key fobs to open cars and even start their ignitions, as first
reported by the German business magazine WirtschaftsWoche. The ADAC
researchers say that 24 different vehicles from 19 different manufacturers
were all vulnerable, allowing them to not only reliably unlock the target
vehicles but also immediately drive them away.

“This clear vulnerability in [wireless] keys facilitates the work of
thieves immensely,'' reads a post in German about the researchers' findings
on the ADAC website. “The radio connection between keys and car can easily
be extended over several hundred meters, regardless of whether the original
key is, for example, at home or in the pocket of the owner.''

That car key hack is far from new: Swiss researchers published a paper
detailing a similar amplification attack as early as 2011. But the ADAC
researchers say they can perform the attack far more cheaply than those
predecessors, spending just $225 on their attack device compared with the
multi-thousand-dollar software-defined radios used in the Swiss researchers'
study. They've also tested a larger array of vehicles and, unlike the
earlier study, released the specific makes and models of which vehicles were
susceptible to the attack; they believe that hundreds of thousands of
vehicles in driveways and parking lots today remain open to the wireless
theft method.

The Vulnerable Makes and Models

Here's the full list of vulnerable vehicles from their findings, which
focused on European models: the Audi A3, A4 and A6, BMW 730d, Citroen DS4
CrossBack, Ford Galaxy and Eco-Sport, Honda HR-V, Hyundai Santa Fe CRDi, KIA
Optima, Lexus RX 450h, Mazda CX-5, MINI Clubman, Mitsubishi Outlander,
Nissan Qashqai and Leaf, Opel Ampera, Range Rover Evoque, Renault Traffic,
Ssangyong Tivoli XDi, Subaru Levorg, Toyota RAV4, and Volkswagen Golf GTD
and Touran 5T. Only the BMW i3 resisted the researchers' attack, though they
were still able to start its ignition. And the researchers posit—but
admit they didn't prove—that the same technique likely would work on
other vehicles, including those more common in the United States, with some
simple changes to the frequency of the equipment's radio communications.

The ADAC released a video that shows surveillance camera footage of a
real-world theft that seemed to use the technique, as well as a
demonstration by the group's own researchers.  [...]


Re: Radio Attack Lets Hackers Steal 24 Different Car Models

Steven Sprague <steven@rivetz.com>
Wed, 23 Mar 2016 14:56:33 +0000
This is really fun but it is the result of not having the simple role of
user intent. Simply adding a timer to the fob could result in the fob only
responding for 5 min after any button is pushed.

This concept is similar to how any malware on a pc can use the users Smart
card because it is left plugged in and the Operating system can easily steal
the PIN and enable remote signing or encryption functions.

User intent is a critical part of the formation of a modern transaction or
instruction. Technologies like Trusted User Interface (TUI) which is part of
the Trusted Execution Environment in Samsung handsets provides a solid
capability to assure the user participates.


Re: Radio Attack Lets Hackers Steal 24 Different Car Models (Sprague)

James Hughes <jphughes@mac.com>
Wed, 23 Mar 2016 08:27:40 -0700
  > This is really fun but it is the result of not having the simple role of
  >  user intent.

....as exemplified by the same attack being used on NFC credit cards. The
Apple (and I assume other NFC enabled smart devices) do capture intent so
they are somewhat more secure.


Re: American Express 3rd-party breach (Al Mac, RISKS-29.38)

"John Levine" <johnl@iecc.com>
23 Mar 2016 02:03:11 -0000
I bought a nice leather wallet with a built in tinfoil hat:

http://www.idstronghold.com/rfid-blocking-secure-wallet-10slots-idsh7005.asp

It does seem to work—NFC apps on my phone can't read cards through the
wallet, and tapping the wallet on a contactless credit card terminal never
beeps.

I originally got it to protect my NEXUS card (a passport card issued by the
US and Canadian governments) but now I have several contactless credit and
debit cards, too.  Wallet also available on Amazon for $2 more.


Re: Ukraine Electric SANS Report (RISKS-29.37,38)

Peter Bernard Ladkin <ladkin@rvs.uni-bielefeld.de>
Wed, 23 Mar 2016 07:11:31 +0100
I think it is useful to separate concerns with regard to the Ukrainian power
outage in December 2015.  One concern involves a cyber attack on the
infrastructure related to electricity distribution ICT systems. Another
involves electricity outages.

First: There was a cyber attack on electricity-distribution infrastructure
in Ukraine on 2015-12-24, as well as a DoS attack on the voice-telephone
systems of the targeted energy companies. These cyberattacks did not cause
the electricity outages, according to the SANS Report.

Second: The electricity outages were caused by human control action,
according to the SANS Report.  These actions were apparently remotely
executed.

Here is the citation:

[begin quote SANS Report]
  Regardless of the impact of the SCADA network environment, neither [of the
  two pieces of malware identified] contained the required components to
  cause the outage. The outages were caused by the use of the control
  systems and their software through direct interaction by the
  adversary. All other tools and technology, such as [the identified
  malware], were used to enable the attack or delay restoration efforts.
[end quote SANS Report]

The outages were apparently caused by human action using valid
authentication for the control systems. There is apparently no public
information, if any at all, on who the attackers were. I note that Ukraine
is undergoing civil war which has lasted so far a couple of years. The
attackers could have been employees with legitimate authentication
credentials who wished to disrupt supply. They could also have been
breakers-in who managed to obtain authentication credentials for the control
systems through any of the well-known methods.

The SANS report, and the RISKS contributions by Alister Macintyre, focus on
the first of these concerns, the mechanisms of the cyber attacks. It is not
at all surprising either that hostile actors disrupt computer systems to
which they have access or that there is malware available for them to do
so. I am not sure how much we can learn from this.

I am also not sure at this point what we can learn from the outage itself.
It is obvious that hostile actors using valid authentication can disrupt the
function of a control system. The issue of remote access facilities to
control systems on industrial plant, and the vulnerabilities that go along
with it, is well-known to security professionals.

However, there is a considerable challenge in raising the awareness of
engineering-plant personnel about the criticality of the computer systems
they might be using. I address those in a blog post at
http://www.abnormaldistribution.org/2016/03/23/power-plants-and-cyberawareness/

Six years after Stuxnet, it appears that some nuclear-plant operators still
think that if a system is "air-gapped" (that is, not connected to external
computer communication networks) it is not vulnerable to disruption via
malware. This from an eye-opening recent report by Chatham House, the Royal
Institute of International Affairs, on cybersecurity in civil nuclear
facilities.  I recommend the report highly to Risks readers.
https://www.chathamhouse.org/publication/cyber-security-civil-nuclear-facilities-understanding-risks

Peter Bernard Ladkin, University of Bielefeld and Causalis
www.rvs.uni-bielefeld.de www.causalis.com


Way to Go, FCC. Now Manufacturers Are Locking Down Routers

Lauren Weinstein <lauren@vortex.com>
Wed, 23 Mar 2016 07:44:52 -0700
*WiReD* via NNSquad
http://www.wired.com/2016/03/way-go-fcc-now-manufacturers-locking-routers/

  HEY, REMEMBER WHEN the FCC reassured us last year that it wasn't going to
  lock down Wi-Fi routers? And everyone breathed a sigh of relief, because
  custom router firmware is actually a really good thing? Sure, it's fun to
  improve your router by extending the range or making your network
  friendlier for guests. But open firmware is important for other reasons:
  it enables critical infrastructure, from emergency communications for
  disaster relief and building free community access points to beefing up
  personal security.  Well, there goes that. Because even though the FCC
  said its new requirements were not intended to lock down router software
  or block the installation of open source firmware, at least one large
  manufacturer has reacted by doing just that. And more could follow.

Unfortunately, the folks rightly fighting against this have proven
ineffective and refused suggestions for a campaign explaining the dangers of
these lockdowns in terms of privacy and security. They seemed to feel that
the FCC could be reasoned with on this. I disagreed. Oh well.


New York has just opened a massive public spying network (Kirsty Styles)

Hendricks Dewayne <dewayne@warpspeed.com>
March 22, 2016 at 5:43:13 PM EDT
Kirsty Styles, The Next Web, 22 Mar 2016
http://thenextweb.com/us/2016/03/22/new-york-just-opened-massive-public-spying-network/

Free public Wi-Fi always sounds a little too good to be true and now
American civil liberties campaigners have written to the Mayor of New York
to tell him they are pretty creeped out about how much data the new LinkNYC
booths will collect.

The anticipated 10,000-strong network across New York will be paid for by
advertising, which the team explains will represent a “Crich, context-aware
platform to reach New Yorkers and visitors.''

Mayor de Blasio has so far only talked about this as a boon for the city as
he expects it to generate $500 million in advertising sales but, of course,
personalized ads require serious amounts of data.

The Ts & Cs on signing up require you to turn over your email and then
submit your future browsing data, as well as information about the specific
content you read and what stuff you click on.

As identified by the New York Civil Liberties Union, CityBridge says it'll
only make *reasonable efforts* to clear out your data if it sees 12 months
of inactivity on the network, so if you're a regular user, you're signing up
to be stalked for life.

Security and surveillance concerns

The NYCLU explains that the network “retains a vast amount of information
about users—often indefinitely—building a massive database that
carries a risk of security breaches and unwarranted NYPD surveillance.''

Donna Lieberman, executive director of the NYCLU, adds: “Free public Wi-Fi
can be an invaluable resource for this city, but New Yorkers need to know
there are too many strings attached.''

The scheme already had to abandon part of its proposed advertising effort
after a Buzzfeed investigation found that it planned on installing Bluetooth
devices that would serve ads straight to people's phones as they walked by.

A similar attempt to do this in London, via smartphone tracking Bluetooth
bins, was halted after concerns were raised by privacy campaigners. [...]


Utilization at Internet Interconnection Points

Monty Solomon <monty@roscom.com>
Wed, 23 Mar 2016 09:34:55 -0400
An Unprecedented Look into Utilization at Internet Interconnection Points
https://freedom-to-tinker.com/blog/feamster/the-interconnection-measurement-project-revealing-utilization-at-internet-interconnection-points/

Revealing Utilization at Internet Interconnection Points
Nick Feamster, Princeton University
http://arxiv.org/pdf/1603.03656v1.pdf

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