The RISKS Digest
Volume 4 Issue 02

Sunday, 2nd November 1986

Forum on Risks to the Public in Computers and Related Systems

ACM Committee on Computers and Public Policy, Peter G. Neumann, moderator

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o Insurgent Squirrel Joins No-Ways Arc
Ross McKenrick
o Collision avoidance systems - FAA vs. Honeywell
Charlie Hurd
o The Military and Automatic Humans
Ronald J Wanttaja
o Assessing system effectiveness
Scott E. Preece
o Computers in elections
Kurt Hyde
Flaviu Cristian
o Info on RISKS (comp.risks)

Insurgent Squirrel Joins No-Ways Arc [Title adapted by PGN from

Thu, 30 Oct 86 11:40:40 EST
                                                    1957 Bob Ashenhurst hoax
                                                    on Rick Gould's PhD Thesis]
"Lost Squirrel Causes Troublesome Power Surge"
Providence Journal, Thursday, October 30, 1986

   An electrical power surge caused computers to go on the blink in
Providence brokerage houses, banks, and office buildings yesterday.  A
Narragansett Electric Co. spokesman said a squirrel caused a short-circuit
in a transformer.  Charles Moran, the spokesman, said the squirrel got into
a transformer at the Narragansett Electric's Dyer Street substation at
11:10am.  Moran said a backup transformer took over automatically and
prevented a power failure in downtown Providence.  But "there was a slight
power surge," he said.

   Computers in the money-market divisions of the Fleet and Old Stone Banks
were down for half an hour after the power surge, but banking services were
not disrupted, spokesmen said.  Dean Witter Reynolds Inc., a brokerage firm,
had trouble getting quotes on stock prices, according to Sharon Tallman, who
said some of the firm's Quotron machines went down.  At Superior Court, the
computer was down for two hours, but it didn't affect court scheduling, a
spokeman said.  

"The mainframe on our IBM computer was down for over an hour," said Robert
Perreira of the Providence Journal Co.'s computer services unit.  Perreira
said 14 systems went down and "three of them did not come up immediately."
A Journal Co. electrician said the power surge caused "our lightning control
panel to behave like a runaway monster."  It caused a computer to activate a
program designed to save energy on weekends by shutting off the lights in part
of the building. "The computer thinks it's Sunday," the electrician said.

    [A similar squirrelcide happened at SRI a while back.  The side-effects
     were quite prolonged and unanticipated.  On occasional Saturdays for 
     several months all of SRI was powerless while repairs were repeatedly
     attempted but not quite completely accomplished.  PGN]

Collision avoidance systems - FAA vs. Honeywell

31 Oct 86 11:01:30 EST (Fri)
A few months ago, Sixty Minutes ran an episode about the fact that the FAA had
rejected Honeywell's collision avoidance system in favor of its own (untested,
uncompleted) system.  I think the episode aired shortly after the Air Mexico
collision in California.  One of the people Sixty Minutes interviewed had been
an FAA official (executive?) until he became too vocal about the fact that the
FAA was ignoring a workable system.  It was his opinion that *many* collisions
and near-misses would never have happened if the Honeywell system had been
adopted when it was first introduced.

The Honeywell system resides in the aircraft and projects an envelope ahead of
the plane that can be detected by another Honeywell system.  The system 
communicates with the pilot by issuing a warning when an intersection with
another plane's envelope is detected and gives a direction in which to turn
to avoid collision.

The FAA system is tied into the ground-control system and seems to rely on 
tracking aircraft from radar on the ground.  I was not too clear on this.

The advantage of the Honeywell system is that it is small, cheap, and does
not require the pilot to rely on any outside assistance.  The drawback is
that *all* planes need to be equipped with the system.  But, since it is
small and cheap that would not be a great problem.

I can't remember all the pros and cons of the FAA system, but the cons had a
clear majority.  The system is much more complicated, involves ground-control
personnel notifying pilots about impending collisions, and is expensive.

    Charlie Hurd

The Military and Automatic Humans

Ronald J Wanttaja <nike!caip!uw-beaver!ssc-vax!wanttaja@cad.Berkeley.EDU>
Wed, 29 Oct 86 09:49:53 pst
After graduating about ten years ago, I entered the Air Force as a
Satellite Systems Engineer.  I was assigned to a unit operating a
particular NORAD satellite names, no mission statements,
please.  A buddy DID almost start World War III one night, though.

My job was real-time and non-real-time analysis of mission data
from the spacecraft; the end result of my analysis was to advice the NORAD
Senior Director of the validity of the data.  A lot of factors had to be
incorporated in my "N" seconds, I had to take into account
which spacecraft had reported, its health and status, DEFCON level, and
"numerous other mission critical elements."  Nudge, nudge...

Anyway, the job was highly dependent upon the experience of the analyst,
as well as his intuition...we had to have a FEEL for what was right.

Three years after I joined the squadron, the unit was reassigned from the
Aerospace Defense Command (ADCOM) to the Strategic Air Command (SAC).  Now,
SAC is the largest producer of automatic humans in the free world.  In a
word, SAC is checklist crazy...every task is broken down to the largest
number of subtasks.

SAC treats its checklists as a way to eliminate the human element.  Training
two people to work as a team is unecessary...all they have to be able to do
is call off the proper steps from the checklist.  SAC uses simulators to
allow its people to practice every step, and to handle every contingency.
For instance, a missile launch officer has gone through the launch procedure in
the simulator dozens of times before he is placed in an actual control
room.  The opening sequence in WAR GAMES is an example of what SAC is trying
to avoid:  The crew must automatically perform its tasks, spending no time
thinking about what the consequences are.  The crew must not bring their
emotions into play, nor even any additional knowledge they must have.
Every action must be governed by a checklist step.

You can see what our problem to you place "intuition" and "gut feel"
onto a checklist?  Our job could not be performed by an automaton; we had to
call on experience and a deep understanding of system operation in order to
provide our assessment.  We argued, to no avail.  We had to have a checklist.
So we thought and thought, and broke the analysis task into as many
subelements as we could.  The last subelement was OPERATOR INTUITION.

Did SAC complain?  Nahhhhh...they never read the thing.  Occasionally
they'd show up for Operational Readiness Inspections.  During the
simulation, their checklist called for them to verify that we had our EVENT
ASSESSMENT checklist open.  Their checklist didn't call for them to
actually read our checklists...

Assessing system effectiveness

"Scott E. Preece" <preece%mycroft@GSWD-VMS.ARPA>
Fri, 31 Oct 86 10:01:55 CST
  [Dave Benson said that we should assume that an overloaded system will
  fail to handle any load at all.  I said an overloaded system could
  fail by handling no load, by handling its ceiling load and no more, or
  by handling its ceiling load and some decreasing part of additional
  traffic, and that we had no grounds for making that decision until a
  design, designers, and implementors existed.  Dave Benson said history
  tells us no system works without extensive realistic testing.]

If that summary sounds as if I thought Dave's remarks didn't address
what I said, that's correct.  I know of systems (not military systems,
with which I have have no experience) which demonstrate each of
those overload behaviors; I'm sure he does, too.  Overload behavior
is something that certainly can be stated explicitly as part of the
design and it's generally a pretty easy thing to simulate, compared
with the problem of simulating all possible inputs.  Note that I
am talking ONLY about response to overload, which is where the
discussion started.

I have plenty of doubts about many parts of the SDI program and I don't for
a minute expect that they will come up with a design or an implementation
that I will be willing to trust.  But Dave's original statement that "We
should assume that a system capable of handling N targets/sec will, when
presented with 2N targets, fail to handle any at all." is without basis and
his further statements referring to 30 years of software development history
offer nothing to support it.  Systems fail in many ways and there is no
reason to assume a particular failure mode without looking at the design and
implementation.  Worst-case assumptions are often useful, but in this case
they are unenlightening; we all know that in the worst case nothing works,
all the missiles fall through, and c'est ca.  I'm a lot more interested in
the probability of that worst case than in the fact that that IS the worst
case.  Dave did not say anything to convince me that an arbitrary system's
most likely response to overload is total failure; in my own experience
(admittedly only 20 years) more systems respond to overload with degraded or
limited performance than with total failure.

scott preece  gould/csd - urbana
uucp:   ihnp4!uiucdcs!ccvaxa!preece

Computers in elections

Jekyll's Revenge 264-7759 MKO1-2/E02 <hyde%abacus.DEC@decwrl.DEC.COM>
Friday, 31 Oct 1986 11:32:53-PST
The latest issue of DATAMATION has an excellent article on computerized vote
counting.  I recommend it to all.  It addresses problems with punch card
voting, but doesn't address the problems with computerized voting booths.
The three biggest problems with computerized voting booths are secrecy of
internal operation, lack of recount capability, and inability for the voters
to ensure that the computer votes as instructed.  Some of the people whose
names are in the article were at BU in August for the Symposium on Security
and Reliability of Computers in the Electoral Process.  These people are
doing great work, especially considering the fact that they are generally
financing it on their own.

I am presently compiling some poll watching guidelines for computerized
elections.  I can send a copy to anyone who will be a poll watcher on Tuesday.


Flaviu Cristian <>
29 October 1986, 09:54:36 PST
   [Remembering that the RISKS Forum is aimed at fostering better systems
    in the future as well as exposing limitations with existing systems,
    it is appropriate to include the following item.  PGN]

                     CALL FOR PAPERS
       sponsored by IEEE Computer Society's Technical
          Committee on Fault-Tolerant Computing
             Pittsburgh, PA, July 6-8, 1987
               **** NOTE NEW DATES ****

The Fault-Tolerant Computing Symposium has, since 1971, become the most
important forum for discussion of the state-of-the-art in fault-tolerant
computing.  It addresses all aspects of specifying, designing, modeling,
implementing, testing, diagnosing and evaluating dependable and
fault-tolerant computing systems and their components.  A special theme of
the conference will be the practical application of fault-tolerance to the
design of safety critical systems, real-time systems, switching systems and
transaction systems.

Papers relating to the following areas are invited:

a) design methods, algorithms for distributed fault-tolerant software systems,

b) specification, design, testing, verification of reliable software,

c) specification, design, testing, verification, diagnosis of reliable hardware

d) fault-tolerant hardware system design and architecture,

e) reliability, availability, safety modeling and measurements,

f) fault-tolerant computing systems for safe process control, digital 
   switching, manufacturing automation, and on-line transaction processing.

Authors should submit 6 copies of papers before the submission deadline
December 5, 1986 to the program co-chairmen: Flaviu Cristian, IBM Research
K55/801, 650 Harry Rd., San Jose, Ca 95120-6099, USA, and Jack Goldberg, SRI
International, 333 Ravenswood Ave., Menlo Park, Ca 94025.  Papers in areas
a, b, and f should be sent to F. Cristian, and papers in areas c, d, and e
to J. Goldberg.

Papers should be no longer than 5000 words, should include a clear
description of the problem being discussed, comparisons with extant work,
and a section on major original contributions.  The front page should
include a contact author's complete mailing address, telephone number and
net address (if available), and should clearly indicate the paper's word
count and the area to which the paper is submitted.  Submissions arriving
late or departing from these guidelines risk rejection without consideration
of their merits.

The Symposium chair and vice-chair are John Shen and Dan Siewiorek, both
from Carnegie Mellon University, USA.  The program co-chairmen are: Flaviu
Cristian, IBM Research, USA, and Jack Goldberg, SRI International, USA.
Publicity chairman is Bella Bose, Oregon State Univ., USA. 
                                           [Program Committee omitted here.]

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