The Risks Digest

The RISKS Digest

Forum on Risks to the Public in Computers and Related Systems

ACM Committee on Computers and Public Policy, Peter G. Neumann, moderator

Volume 4 Issue 36

Tuesday, 6 January 1987

Contents

o A Heisenbug Example from the SIFT Computer
Jack Goldberg
o More Heisen-debugs
Don Lindsay
o The Conrail train wreck
PGN
o Software glitches in high-tech defense systems
from Michael Melliar-Smith
o Computer program zeroes out fifth grader; Computerized gift-wrap
Ed Reid
o Videocypher, DES
Jerry Leichter
o More on the possible DES crack
David Platt
o Campus LANs
James D. Carlson
Don Wegeng
Henry Spencer
o Engineering Ethics
Chuck Youman
o Info on RISKS (comp.risks)

A Heisenbug Example from the SIFT Computer

Jack Goldberg <JGOLDBERG@CSL.SRI.COM>
Tue 6 Jan 87 11:25:55-PST
The following hardware bug was found in the debugging of the SIFT
fault-tolerant computer.  The memory was built of static RAM chips, in which
the memory cells were flip-flops.  Due to a defect in manufacture, the
cross-coupling of the flip-flops in some of the cells was capacitive rather
than conductive.  The effect was that the cells behaved perfectly when
exercised ("observed") frequently, but when information was stored and not
revisited, the charges on the cross-coupling capacitors would leak off and
the flip-flop would become unstable, perhaps switching state.  The quality
of the accidental capacitors was high, so it would take about twenty minutes
of inactivity (non-observation) for the event to occur.  The debugging
problem was compounded by the fact that numerous chips suffered from the
same manufacturing defect.  I won't enumerate all the hypotheses that were
tried before the phenomenon was identified.

A similar phenomenon has been found in logic circuits, associated with charge 
that may accumulate at unused gate inputs that were not properly connected
to a holding potential.  I am aware of some painful debugging experience
that that form caused in another fault-tolerant computer development.

The Heisenberg Risk is evident and easily generalized beyond the chip level
(one can imagine analogs at the program level).  It has substantial
implications for risks to system dependability, because it subverts several
conventional models of testing.  First, a person who is testing a defective
system usually assumes that the defect is due to a fault in the system, that
the fault is static, that there is some test (or test sequence) that will
reveal it, and that when the test is applied, the fault will be revealed
more or less immediately as an observable error.  This phenomenon says that
there may be some latency in the manifestation of a fault, and that the
latency may occur not only after a test sequence has been applied, but after
any element of the sequence has been applied.

A second subversion is to the standard practice of testing during
manufacture.  Chip manufacturers simply cannot afford to let chips stand in
their expensive testers for the time it would take to reveal such phenomena,
and system manufacturers also have practical time limits for their test
exercises.  In practice, such faults, hopefully rare, must be found and
coped with at other points in the system lifecycle.


More Heisen-debugs

<LINDSAY@TL-20B.ARPA>
Sun 4 Jan 87 22:09:32-EST
I recently encountered a particularly infuriating Heisenbug. A large program,
when given a large input, was just mysteriously dying. Of course, I ran it
under the debugger. The mystery deepened: the program returned quietly
to the debugger. I say "mystery" because the call stack had been
unwound, and yet my breakpoints at the various exits were not reached.

My first reaction was to place a trail of breakpoints, with the idea of
seeing how far it got. Some results were obtained, but each time I tried to
refine the result, with a new set of breakpoints, the problem seemed to have
moved elsewhere.

The clue came when I tried to read some of the debugger's online documentation.
The (VMS 4.1) debugger refused to talk, and instead gave me a message about
a lack of resources. Aha ! The next step was to have an operator increase
my resource allocation ( actually, my maximum number of IO operations ). I
logged out, I logged in, and the problem was gone.

I have harsh words to say about an operating system which will kill a job,
without leaving any evidence that it did so. But, I leave these words to your 
imagination.

I have also had the privilege of a debugging session, done through the
communications software which was being debugged. In this case, I have
advice to novices. << Keep notes. Good ones. <> Trust me.

Naturally, the hardware world has its share of these things. At one point,
PDP-8 maintainers knew that the fix for a certain kind of crash, was to
wave your hands near the backplane. (I am NOT kidding. Ask very old DEC hands.)

And then there was the hobbyist 8080 board whose clock worked, but only when a 
scope probe was applied to the clock line. Turned out that the capacitance of 
the scope probe overcame the cigar ash under the CPU socket ...

Don Lindsay


The Conrail train wreck

Peter G. Neumann <Neumann@CSL.SRI.COM>
Tue 6 Jan 87 19:16:38-PST
It is too early to write the definitive piece on this, but there are various
conflicting reports.  The advance warning signal (back two miles on the main
track) may or may not have indicated GO (an up-bar) instead of CAUTION (a
slant-bar); the crossing locomotive engineer ran his stop signal; the cab
crew of the Conrail train had bypassed the emergency alarm that is supposed
to go off if they run a signal (as suggested by a PBS interview this evening, 
which indicated that three separate safety systems would have had to fail
simultaneously).  Stay tuned for the interpretation of the "event recorder".


Software glitches in high-tech defense systems

Peter G. Neumann <Neumann@CSL.SRI.COM>
Tue 6 Jan 87 19:30:06-PST
An article by Steve Johnson in the San Jose Mercury News (4 Jan 87)
listed a new bunch of problems.

  * A multimillion-dollar satellite network called "MILSTAR", which is
    supposed to link the president and top generals with tactical field
    units in wartime, is months behind schedule because of software
    troubles... (Lockheed)
  * A computerized system intended to help direct artillery fire for 
    soldiers at Fort Ord in Monterey County and other army bases is beset
    with software delays.
  * Two computer projects intended to make it easier to keep track of
    equipment inventories at the Naval Supply Center in Oakland [CA] and
    similar installations elsewhere have been held up because of software
    development problems.
  * Researchers at SRI International in Menlo Park a few years ago were
    hired to analyze a new "over-the-horizon backscatter" radar system that
    was supposed to detect attacking planes.  They found numerous software
    errors that meant months of delays in the system.

Elsewhere, the Air Force and Navy have had to postpone changes for the F-16C
and F-18 fighter jets because of software hitches...  Similar problems
have hurt... "LANTIRN" ... and "AMRAAM".  [The article also talks about SDI,
software costs escalating, and the shortage of (competent) engineers.]

"If we can't get substantial increase in (software) productivity, there is
just absolutely no way we can produce the amount of software the defense
industry needs in the next few years." (Dorothy McKinney, manager of the
software engineering department at Ford Aerospace (FACC) in Palo Alto.

                 [Thanks to Michael Melliar-Smith for bringing this one in.]


Computer program zeroes out fifth grader; Computerized gift-wrap

Peter G. Neumann <Neumann@CSL.SRI.COM>
Tue 6 Jan 87 19:46:17-PST
Edward Reid dug into his archives for this one, from the Gadsden County
Times (FL), 25 Oct 1984.  One extra blank space between a fifth grader's
first name and his last name resulted in his getting a ZERO score on the
sixth-grade placement test.  Despite protests from his parents, he was
forced to reenter fifth grade.  It was six weeks into the new school year
before the test was finally regraded manually and the error detected.  (The
boy cried and wouldn't eat for days after he got the original score of
ZERO.)

Edward also produced a clipping from the Philadelphia Inquirer, 5 Dec 1986.
Computer printouts of the San Diego Unified School District's payroll
somehow did not make it to the shredder, instead winding up as Christmas
gift-wrapping paper in a local store (Bumper Snickers).  [Perhaps some of
the bumper crop wound up in the NY Mets' victory parade?]


Videocypher, DES

<LEICHTER-JERRY@YALE.ARPA>
5 JAN 1987 12:32:58 EST
Dave Platt mentions a Radio Electronics article concerning the breaking of
the Videocypher system, and speculates about the implications.

This whole issue got hashed around in sci.crypt a couple of weeks ago.  The
Radio Electronics article contains a LOT of nonsense, in its claims about the
illegality of breaking DES in particular.  Also, the claims that DES itself
has been broken are not credible.

The Videocypher system has at least two vulnerabilities:  Each box contains a
chip with a fixed key in it (the same in every box) which, if known, would
allow anyone to determine actual working keys and intercept transmissions.
Also, independent of the cryptography, the box itself makes a decision as to
whether to allow you to see a particular channel.

This allows at least to avenues of subversion:  Open a box and read the key
from the embedded chip, or take a box and change its decision procedure so
that it allows you to see channels you are not supposed to be able to see.
(As I understand it, given a valid subscriber key, any box CAN extract the
key for ANY channel - it just refuses to work on channels it is not supposed
to see.)

With enough equipment, it is possible to open up a chip, dissolve off the
epoxy it's embedded in, and read the contents of any PROM with a scanning
electron microscope.  I gather there ARE techniques for protecting chips
against this sort of probing, but they may be too expensive for boxes that
are supposed to sell for a couple of hundred dollars.  (They may also
involve booby traps that would be considered too dangerous in consumer
equipment.)

Meanwhile, "rsk" speculates about the vulnerabilities of campus local area
networks.  This is a REAL concern.  Ethernet, and all other LAN's I'm aware
of, are completely open to anyone who can gain physical access to them.
Listening in to any conversation is easy; spoofing is only a little harder.
Yes, problems will arise.

The solution is the use of well-understood cryptographic techniques.  As far
as I know, while these techniques are understood, there have as yet been few
implementations, mainly because of the expense involved.  (For many years,
billions of dollars a day were transfered "by wire" over telephone lines
with no real protection, cryptographic or otherwise.  It's only in the last
couple of years that concern about security, and technology, have reached
the point that these lines have been protected.)

I expect we will see a re-hash of the OS/360 hacker phenomenon.  (OS/360 had
so many security holes that many people broke into it.  It was never really
fixed, just replaced.)
                            -- Jerry


More on the possible DES crack

David Platt <dplatt@teknowledge-vaxc.arpa>
Tue, 6 Jan 87 09:46:20 PST
I just got a copy of the 2/87 issue of Radio-Electronics, which
contains brief descriptions of several of the systems that have
"cracked" the VideoCypher II scrambling system.

The systems described are all "software" approaches that fall into what
I described as "way #1"... they work by cloning copies of an authorized
subscriber number.  At least one has found a way to crack the "tiered
distribution" feature of VideoCypher, thus permitting someone who has
paid for only one service to successfully view several others.

None of the systems described so far actually involve a "cracking" of
DES itself... they're all methods of copying an existing (valid) key
from one decoder to another.  It appears that the MA-Com folks did take
some steps to conceal the subscriber number information (which
generates the actual key dynamically, I believe), but that their steps
were not sufficient.  Apparently, the subscriber-number is stored in
the battery-backed RAM in a small TI microprocessor, and there's no
direct way to query it; during operation, though, it's apparently
possible to trace the signals on some of the micro's pins and "catch"
the subscriber number as it flys by.  Someone has found a way to do
this and to "download" the number into the micro in another decoder...
thus permitting the "cloning" of an authorized number.

So, the vulnerability of the VideoCypher II system appears to boil down
to the fact that its "innards" aren't sufficiently guarded against
probing and/or modification.  If, for example, the box had been
provided with a cover-removal switch that would signal the micro to
erase its subscriber number, it might have been more difficult to
"crack".

A description of several "hardware" approaches is promised for next
month.  I'll summarize once I get my hands on an issue.


Campus LANs

James D. Carlson <jc37#@andrew.cmu.edu>
Sun, 4 Jan 87 17:30:26 est
I am a student at Carnegie-Mellon University (Senior, EE) and I therefore
speak only for myself, not the Academic Computing Center.

First of all, in our system there are (basically) two types of files:  local
and network.  Local files, like the password file, are only rarely
transmitted over the network, and network files are maintained on the file
servers.  The password file, when transmitted, is in an encoded form anyway.
You will never see a raw password floating around the packets, at least they
tell me so.  Because of the way the network operates, it would be a lot
easier to get into the file servers themselves (false authentication, and so
forth) than to pick the information up on the net.

To the second part, the University's obligations, I think that they are the
same as with large computers.  If you used the computer to create a paper,
then lost it before the due date, tough! You knew the risks when you
requested the account.  As to the "wrongful" obtaining of information, such
as test questions, anyone who keeps highly sensitive information on a
computer in unencoded form gets what he deserves.  This is not US Mail, and
the same rules cannot apply here.

BTW, the Andrew system here is not quite complete (despite what the wire
services may be saying), and the main convenience of the system is that its
use is free, possibly because of the bugs.  We have many other systems
around that are MANY times faster, more secure, and more often even
*working*, like the IBM 3083 ...


Re: Risks Involved in Campus Network-building

Don Wegeng <Wegeng.Henr@Xerox.COM>
5 Jan 87 17:30:20 EST (Monday)
I agree with Rich Kulawiec that a campus wide LAN is certainly subject
to a large number of potential security risks, but it seems to me that
such risks are present in any open computing environment. If an
instructor keeps a draft of an exam online, but does not read protect
the file, then any knowledgeable student with access to the system is
capable of making a copy of the exam. There are similar risks associated
with print spools, mail files, etc.

The presence of an LAN may make it difficult to detect some kinds of
security violations, but this isn't a new problem. Any computer
communications link that passes through uncontrolled space is subject to
the same kinds of risks as a campus network. The technology exists to
protect such links. I do not know whether the implementors of campus
networks have made use of this technology, but it's certainly a
reasonable question to ask.
                                             Don


Risks Involved in Campus Network-building

<hplabs!pyramid!utzoo!henry@ucbvax.Berkeley.EDU>
Tue, 6 Jan 87 16:53:46 pst
It can get worse.  Consider someone who is angry at the administration,
perhaps having just flunked out, been expelled, or whatever.  There is
some sophistication involved in doing things like watching the network
for passwords etc.  There is little or no sophistication needed to just
run some copper between the network cable and a 110V wall socket.  Not
only does this disrupt the network, it probably destroys a great deal of
equipment, and creates a serious safety hazard.  Good luck identifying
the culprit, too!  In most networking setups this would probably be
utterly untraceable once the connection was broken.

I see reason for worry about newer, cheaper local-networking schemes that
tend to run the network cable itself onto a board on each computer's
backplane.  Traditional thick-wire Ethernet is costly, but its transceivers
do provide thousands of volts of isolation between network and computer.
A disastrous fault on the network will only destroy transceivers.  Fiber
networks likewise provide inherent isolation.

The same problem exists, on a more modest scale, with existing setups
involving RS232 cables.  There the wiring is (probably) not a shared
resource, but the electronics on the other end are.  If your computer
facility casually runs RS232 cabling all over the building (as we do),
remember that this means your computer is plugged into a net of wire
with exposed pins in all kinds of places.  RS232 interfaces are seldom
opto-isolated, which is what would be needed to defend against electrical
flaws in such setups.

That net of wiring also makes a dandy lightning antenna.  That's one
reason, by the way, why a separate-box modem is almost always a better
idea than one that plugs into a backplane slot -- more isolation between
phone line and computer.
                Henry Spencer @ U of Toronto Zoology
                {allegra,ihnp4,decvax,pyramid}!utzoo!henry

     [Thanks.  Enough on this topic for now?  We seem to have plateued.  PGN]


Engineering Ethics

Chuck Youman <m14817@mitre.ARPA>
Fri, 02 Jan 87 11:47:56 -0500
The December 28 op-ed section of the Washington Post included an article
titled "The Slippery Ethics of Engineering" written by Taft H. Broome, Jr.
He is director of the Large Space Structures Institute at Howard University
and chairman of the ethics committee of the American Association of
Engineering Societies.  The article is too long to include in its entirety.
Some excerpts from the article follow:

 Until now, engineers would have been judged wicked or demented if they
 were discovered blantantly ignoring the philosopher Cicero's 2,000-year-old
 imperative:  In whatever you build, "the safety of the public shall be 
 the highest law."

 Today, however, the Ford Pinto, Three-Mile Island, Bhopal, the Challenger,
 Chernobyl and other technological horror stories tell of a cancer growing
 on our values.  These engineering disasters are the results of willful
 actions.  Yet these actions are generally not seen by engineers as being
 morally wrong. . . Some engineers now espouse a morality that explicitly
 rejects the notion that they have as their prime responsibility the
 maintenance of public safety.

 Debate on this issue rages in the open literature, in the courts, at public
 meetings and in private conversations. . . This debate is largely over four
 moral codes--Cicero's placement of the public welfare as of paramount
 importance, and three rival points of view.

 Significantly, the most defensible moral position in opposition to Cicero
 is based on revolutionary ideas about what engineering is.  It assumes that
 engineering is always an experiment involving the public as human subjects.
 This new view suggests that engineering always oversteps the limits of
 science.  Decisions are always made with insufficient scientific information.

 In this view, risks taken by people who depend on engineers are not merely
 the risks over some error of scientific principle.  More important and
 inevitable is the risk that the engineer, confronted with a totally novel
 technological problem, will incorrectly intuit which precedent that worked
 in the past can be successfully applied at this time.

 Most of the codes of ethics adopted by engineering professional societies
 agree with Cicero that "the engineer shall hold paramount the health,
 safety and welfare of the public in the performance of his professional 
 duties."

 But undermining it is the conviction of virtually every engineer that totally
 risk-free engineering can never be achieved.  So the health and welfare of
 the public can never be completely assured.  This gets to be a real problem
 when lawyers start representing victims of technological accidents.  They
 tend to say that if an accident of any kind occurred, then Cicero's code
 demanding that public safety come first was, by definition, defiled, despite
 the fact that such perfection is impossible in engineering.

 A noteworthy exception to engineer's reverence for Cicero's code is that of
 the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)--the largest
 of the engineering professional societies.  Their code includes Cicero's,
 but it adds three other imperitives opposing him--without giving a way to
 resolve conflicts between these four paths.

 The first imperative challenging the public-safety-first approach is called
 the "contractarian" code.  Its advocates point that contracts actually exist
 on paper between engineers and their employers or clients.  They deny that
 any such contract exists--implied or explicit--between them and the public.
 They argue that notions of "social" contracts are abstract, arbitrary and
 absent of authority.

 [The second imperative is called] the "personal-judgment" imperative.  Its
 advocates hold that in a free society such as ours, the interests of business
 and government are always compatible with, or do not conflict with, the 
 interests of the public.  There is only the illusion of such conflicts. . .
 owing to the egoistic efforts of:

 -Self-interest groups (e.g. environmentalists, recreationalists);

 -The few business or government persons who act unlawfully in their own
  interests without the knowledge and consent of business and government; and

 -Reactionaries impassioned by the loss of loved ones or property due to
  business-related accidents.

 The third rival to public-safety-first morality is the one that follows 
 from the new ideas about the fundamental nature of engineering.  And they
 are lethal to Cicero's moral agenda and its two other competitors.

 Science consists of theories for claiming knowledge about the physical world.
 Applied science consists of theories for adapting this knowledge to individual
 practical problems.  Engineering, however, consists of theories for changing
 the physical world before all relevant scientific facts are in.

 Some call it sophisticated guesswork.  Engineers would honor it with a
 capitalization and formally call it "Intuition." . . . It is grounded in
 the practical work of millenia, discovering which bridges continue to stand,
 and which buildings.  They find it so compelling that they rally around its
 complex principles, and totally rely on it to give them confidence about what
 they can achieve.

 This practice of using Intuition leads to the conclusion put forward by
 Mike Martin and Roland Schinzinger in their 1983 book "Ethics in Engineering":
 that engineering is an experiment involving the public as human subjects.

 This is not a metaphor for engineering.  It is a definition for engineering.

 Martin and Schinzinger use it to conclude that moral relationships between
 engineers and the public should be of the informed-consent variety enjoyed
 by some physicians and their patients.  In this moral model, engineers would
 acknowledge to their customers that they do not know everything.  They would
 give the public their best estimate of the benefits of their proposed 
 projects, and the dangers.  And if the public agreed, and the engineers 
 performed honorably and without malpractice, even if they failed, the public
 would not hold them at fault.

 However, most engineers regard the public as insufficiently informed about
 engineering Intuition--and lacking the will to become so informed--to assume
 responsibility for technology in partnership with engineers (or anyone else).
 They are content to let the public continue to delude itself into thinking
 that engineering is an exact science, or loyal to the principles of the
 conventional sciences (i.e., physics, chemistry).

Charles Youman (youman@mitre)

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