The Risks Digest

The RISKS Digest

Forum on Risks to the Public in Computers and Related Systems

ACM Committee on Computers and Public Policy, Peter G. Neumann, moderator

Volume 9 Issue 01

Thursday 6 July 1989

Contents

o Elevator inquest update
Walter Roberson
o UK Defense software standard
Sean Matthews
o Exxon loses Valdez data
Steve Smaha -- and Hugh Miller
o "Managing risk in large complex systems"
Bob Allison
o A "model" software engineering methodology?
Rich D'Ippolito
o CERT Offline
Edward DeHart
o Re: Audi 5000 acceleration
Dave Platt
Mark Seecof
Michael McClary
o Info on RISKS (comp.risks)

Elevator inquest update

<Walter_Roberson@CARLETON.CA>
Fri, 30 Jun 89 11:07:29 EST
Another two days of the testimony into the April 1st elevator fatality
in Ottawa has revealed some interesting/ scary facts.
  It seems that the elevator type in question had a known problem
with potentially being able to move when only one of the two doors
was closed. A repair which involved moving only *one* wire was known,
and had been recommended by the manufacturer in 1978. The repair
was not made until 4 days *after* the accident, 11 years later.
In the meantime, the ownership of the building changed hands (in 1980),
and the maintenance company changed (in 1988). The government inspectors
never noticed that the change hadn't been made (there are only 2
inspectors for the Ottawa area, which has 3000+ elevators), and the
new repair company didn't notice it either. The owner of the company that
checked the elevator just 1 hour before the death *was* aware of the
change notice, but, as he put it:
  "Are you telling me 10 years after a letter comes out... I should
remember that?" [...]
  "I would assume in 1980 [when the building was sold -- WDR] all those
changes would be made, let alone 1988 [when he took over maintenance].
I don't know of any way any elevator company could know about it all."

The scary part came at the end of yesterday's article:

  "The inquest was told no maintenance records were available for the
  elevators, installed with building construction in 1973. Records are not
  required by the ministry and are often removed by maintenance companies if
  the contract expires in order to hinder the new contractors, Allan Maheral
  said."

         [The Ottawa Citizen, 28 June 1989, p. B1, and 29 June 1989, pp. A1-A2]

  Walter Roberson <Walter_Roberson@Carleton.CA>


UK Defense software standard

Sean Matthews <sean@aipna.edinburgh.ac.uk>
Fri, 30 Jun 89 13:49:12 BST
I have just seen a copy of the UK department of defence draft standard
for safety critical software  (00-55).

Here are a few high (and low) points.

1. There should be no dynamic memory allocation (This rules out explicit
recursion - though a bounded stack is allowed).

2. There should be no interupts except for a regular clock interupt.

3. There should not be any distributed processing (i.e. only a single
processor).

4. There should not be any multiprocessing.

5. NO ASSEMBLER.

6. All code should be at least rigourously checked using mathematical
methods.

7. Any formally verified code should have the proof submitted as well, in
machine readable form, so that an independent check can be performed.

8. All code will be formally specified.

9. There are very strict requirements for static analysis (no unreachable
code, no unused variables, no unintialised variables etc.).

10. No optimising compilers will be used.

11. A language with a formally defined syntax and a well defined semantics,
or a suitable subset thereof will be used.

Comments.

1. means that all storage can be statically allocated.  In fact somewhere it
says that this should be the case.

2-4 seem to leave no option but polling.  This is impractical, especially in
embedded systems.  No one is going to build a fly by wire system with those
sorts of restrictions. (maybe people should therefore not build fly by wire
systems, but that is another matter that has been discussed at length here
already).  it also ignores the fact that there are proof methods for dealing
with distributed systems.

5. This is interesting, I seem to remember reading somewhere that Nasa used
to have the opposite rule: no high level languages, since they actually read
the delivered binary to check that the software did what it was supposed to
do.

6-7.  All through the draft the phrase `mathematical methods' or `formal
methods' is *invoked* in a general way without going into very much detail
about what is involved.  I am not sure that the people who wrote the report
were sure (Could someone from Praxis - which I believe consulted on drawing
it up - enlarge on this?).

8. this is an excellent thing, though it does not say what sort of language
should be used.  Is a description in terms of a Turing machine suitable?
After all that is a well understood formal system.

10. Interestingly, there is no requirement that the compiler be formally
verified, just that it should conform to international standards (though
strictly), and not have any gross hacks (i.e. optimisation) installed.
There is also no demand that the target processor hardware be verified
(though such a device exists here already: the Royal Signals Research
Establishment's Viper processor).

11. seems to be a dig at Ada and the no subsets rule.  It also rules out C.

Conclusions.

I find the idea of the wholesale mayhem and killing merchants being forced
to try so much harder to ensure that their products maim and kill only the
people they are supposed to maim and kill, rather amusing.

The standard seems to be naive in its expectations of what can be achieved
at the moment with formal methods (That is apparently the general opinion
around here, and there is a *lot* of active research in program verification
in Edinburgh), and impossibly restrictive.

An interesting move in the right direction but too fast and too soon.  And
they might blow the idea of Formal verification by tring to force it too
soon.  And I would very much like to see these ideas trickle down into the
civil sector.

I might follow this up with a larger (and more coherent) description if
there is interest (this was typed from memory after seeing it yesterday)
there is quite a bit more in it.

Sean Matthews
Dept. of Artificial Intelligence JANET: sean@uk.ac.ed.aipna
University of Edinburgh           ARPA: sean%uk.ac.ed.aipna@nsfnet-relay.ac.uk
80 South Bridge                   UUCP: ...!mcvax!ukc!aipna!sean
Edinburgh, EH1 1HN, Scotland


Exxon loses Valdez data

Steve Smaha <Smaha@DOCKMASTER.NCSC.MIL>
Wed, 5 Jul 89 11:58 EDT
This appeared in the 2 Jul 89 Austin (TX) "American-Statesman".

"Exxon accidentally destroys data files on Alaska oil spill,"
          by Roberto Suro, New York Times Service

HOUSTON - A computer operator at Exxon headwuarters in Houston says he
inadvertently destroyed computer copies of thousands of documents with
potentially important information on the Alaskan oil spill.
  A federal court had ordered Exxon to preserve the computer records along
with all other material concerning the grounding of the Exxon Valdez in
Prince William Sound on March 24 and the subsequent cleanup effort.
  Les Rogers, a spokesman for the Exxon Company USA, confirmed the
destruction of the computer records but said the oil company's lawyers
believed other copies exist.
  "Very early in the spill, even before the court order, Exxon took
the initiative to instruct all its employees to save all documents
relating to the event because of the anticipated litigation," Rogers
said.  "We assume these instructions have been followed."
  The computer technician, Kenneth Davis, said that it would be difficult
and perhaps impossible to determine what documents were on destroyed
conmputer files.
  Exxon faces about 150 lawsuits as a result of the spill, which dumped
11 million gallons of crude oil into Prince William Sound, and it appears
certain that the loss of these documents will be the subject of court
arguments.
  Stephen Sussman, a Houston lawyer involved in a suit against Exxon on
behalf of Alaska fishermen, Native Americans, and others, said, "The
destruction of these records is potentially significant to our case in
that we will be arguing that Exxon has been negligent throughout this
disaster and now perhaps it was negligent even in the handling of its
own documents."
  Davis, 33, was dismissed June 8, the day after the destruction of the
records was discovered.
  In several interviews, and in written statements to the Texas Employment
Commission, Davis alleged that his superiors had been negligent in
safeguarding the computer records and that his actions resulted from
their failures.
  The destroyed material included all internal communications and
word-processing documents from both the Exxon Shipping Co., which owned
the tanker, and the executive offices of Exxon USA.
  Davis said that since the tapes were the only complete copy of what
passed through those computer systems, it might be impossible to
determine what was lost.

   [The full NYT text was sent in by Hugh Miller <MILLER@vm.epas.utoronto.ca>,
   who prefaced the text with this reference to `1984' by George Orwell:

     ``I was thinking just this morning about how Winston Smith's job in
       historical engineering would have been a lot easier if everything had
       been kept on magnetic media, when this item appeared in today's NYT.''

   To conclude, he made some comments about the difficulties of prosecuting
   after the documents have been destroyed (with reference to Ollie and Fawn).
   ``Want to bet Exxon doesn't use a PROFS system?''


IEEE Spectrum June issue: "Managing risk in large complex systems"

<bobal@microsoft.UUCP>
Wed Jul 5 16:40:22 1989
The June 1989 issue of IEEE Spectrum contains a series of articles discussing
risk management techniques and failures, paying particular attention to the
areas of aging aircraft ala the Aloha Airlanes 737 incident, the Hinsdale
fire which shut down phone service near Chicago, the Savannah river nuclear
reactors, the space shuttle, and the release of lethal chemicals in Bhopal.

Perhaps because of my own particular biases, the space shuttle article was
particularly interesting where it describes the risk of a shuttle accident also
dooming the space station (due to the destruction of single copies of critical
space station components).

Bob Allison


A "model" software engineering methodology? (RISKS-8.86)

<rsd@SEI.CMU.EDU>
Mon, 03 Jul 89 14:46:23 EDT
In RISKS 8.86, Jon Jacky quotes Stan Shebs:

  We supposedly had a "model" software engineering methodology; what I
  remember most clearly is that half the work was done on one flavor of IBM
  OS, and the other half done on a different flavor, and file transfer
  between the two was tricky and time-consuming.

The coupled clauses are unrelated, a compositional practice Mr. Shebs is
apparently quite fond of.  Let's concentrate on Mr. Sheb's text to see what
his understanding of software development is:


  The day-to-day work was [...] writing the "Program Design" for an
  already-written program (is that stupid or what), figuring out how to
  compute the intersection of two polygons in space.

Without context, this is not evidence that the SE method was good or bad.
Of course the program design should have been documented beforehand, but
recognizing that it is necessary to have for testing and maintenance
purposes is not stupid.  I have seen many systems where the software is very
old (or inhereted) and must be re-documented to current standards.  What was
the case here?


  I suppose the greatest risk of failure derives from things that weren't
  anticipated during testing, such as a Siberian snowdrift changing the
  topography on a navigation map...

[How does the snow get on the map?!]  One does not wait until testing to
anticipate such contingencies.  Does Mr. Shebs think so?


  (Regarding) statistics on software quality, the closest thing we had was
  maybe a count of problem reports (hundreds, but each report ranged from
  one-liners to one-monthers in terms of effort required).

Sigh.  There is no mention here whether this applies to _delivered_ product
or corrected production errors.  Is this his view of what constitutes
quality?


  Nothing classified, we had the odd situation that the *data* was [sic]
  classified, but the *program* wasn't even rated "confidential"!

Odd situation?  Apparently, Mr. Shebs had a single experience in the MCCR
community.


This article was posted to illuminate "the accuracy/quality of strategic
weapons guidance systems", presumably by offering a coherent and reasoned
exposition.  Instead, it presents jokes, innuendo, and unsubstantiated
charges and conclusions in indefinite (and sloppy, such as the 1/2 inch
diameter missile) language such as:

  The difficulty of all this apparently didn't occur to anybody until after
  the missile was working...

  ...error accumulation over 2000 km is immense,...

  ...cute little cassette tapes...

  The precision and formality of the software was very low, but it was
  exhaustively tested over and over and over again.


Really, if Mr. Shebs's rambling demonstrates anything, it shows that the
greatest risk is hiring inarticulate and confused programmers like himself
who don't have the faintest idea what software engineering is.

Mr. Shebs appears to come clean in only one statement:

  The fragility of something like the cruise missile and its software is
  something I've spent a lot of time wondering about, and don't really
  have any idea.

Indeed.

Rich D'Ippolito


CERT Offline [Computer Emergency Response Team]

<Edward DeHart <ecd@cert.sei.cmu.edu> [forwarded via many different paths]>
Wed, 5 Jul 89 14:19:09 EDT
The supply of cold water to our air-conditioners has been turned off due to a
major break in the pipes.  The problem may not be corrected until the weekend.

The lack of cold water is bad news for the computer room.  All of the systems
are going to be turned off.

For the next day or so, CERT will not be able to send or receive EMAIL via the
Internet.

We will be in the building if you need to contact us.  Our telephone number is
412-268-7090.

Please forward this information to others in your group.

Thanks, Ed DeHart

    [whhada yuh know; CERT needs a CERT!  The police dept's computers are
    down ...  Willis Ware]

    [I suppose the famous detective, Air-Cool Pour-out, will investigate.  PGN]


Re: Audi 5000 acceleration [RISKS-8.87]

Dave Platt <dplatt@coherent.com>
Fri, 30 Jun 89 10:40:37 PDT
> The study, ``An Examination of Sudden Acceleration,'' explored ...
>
> However, there was evidence of minor surges of about three-tenths of the
> Earth's gravity for 2 seconds caused by electronic faults in the idle
> stabilizer systems of the Audi 5000 ... the surge could startle a driver
> enough to accidentally push the accelerator instead of the brake, ...

Minor??  .3G works out to roughly 10 feet/sec^2, or a zero-to-sixty
acceleration time of about 9 seconds.  This may not be considered "full power"
or "major" acceleration for a sports-car, but my old Volvo has difficulty
reaching highway speed (55) in 9 seconds even if I floor the accelerator.

A .3G surge for 2 seconds would accelerate a car from a standstill to somewhere
in the neighborhood of 20 feet/second, and would carry the car about 10 feet
forwards.  Startling?  I should say so... especially to drivers who might have
only recently switched to the Audi from an older, lower-powered car.

Even if this fault in the idle stabilizer cannot invoke "full"
acceleration by itself, it sounds substantially dangerous in and of
itself.  Coupled with poor pedal/linkage layout and design, it
apparently adds up to a real hazard.

Dave Platt    FIDONET:  Dave Platt on 1:204/444        VOICE: (415) 493-8805
  USNAIL: Coherent Thought Inc.  3350 West Bayshore #205  Palo Alto CA 94303


misleading Audi surge report

<lcc.marks@SEAS.UCLA.EDU>
Fri, 30 Jun 89 11:39:11 PDT
Three-tenths of the Earth's gravity is not "minor."  That's about
three meters per second squared.  At the end of two seconds the car
would have travelled about six meters or twenty feet.  3m/sec^2 on
a 1500 Kg automobile for just a moment will set it moving fast
enough to squish or bash-in any likely obstacle (inertia, you know).

I'll bet drivers are startled!  They aren't likely to accellerate
that fast when parking...  Sixty miles per hour is about a hundred
kilometers per hour.  That's about twenty-eight meters per second.
At 3m/sec^2 it takes only nine or ten seconds to reach 28m/sec; the
owners of Audi 5000's are probably pleased with the "zero to sixty
in six seconds" performance of their cars; that's less than 5m/sec^2.
(Many cars can't do 0-60 in less than 9 seconds flat out.)  This
means the "surges... caused by electronic faults" are equivalent to
accellerating away from a stop light in traffic--and only a third
less than flooring the gas pedal to get onto the Pasadena Freeway
in Highland Park.  Imagine if you were easing your car into your
garage at an idle and it suddenly accellerated like you were taking
off from a stop sign.

(Before you all write to criticize the math, I'm aware that I've neglected air
resistance and gear shifting, but I don't think this invalidates the
discussion.)

If the report does minimize the fault in the Audi's electronic controls to lay
the blame on the driver, then we must ask whether the authors wanted to shift
concern away from Audi where it seems to belong.  (No, I've never owned or even
driven an Audi.)

 Mark Seecof, Locus Computing Corp., Los Angeles (213-337-5218)
 My opinions only, of course...


Audi surges (Re: RISKS DIGEST 8.87)

Michael McClary <michael@xanadu.COM>
6 Jul 89 18:06:27 GMT
>However, there was evidence of minor surges of about three-tenths of the
>Earth's gravity for 2 seconds caused by electronic faults in the idle
>stabilizer systems of the Audi 5000

Is this a missprint?  I find the characterization of a two-second, 3/10 g surge
as "minor" to be ludicrous.

This is especially true if it is the result of a malfunction in an idle speed
control system, implying that it would occur when the vehicle was stopped.  At
a busy intersection, for instance, with pedestrian cross-traffic or another
stopped car just a foot or two ahead.

After one second, a 3/10g surge would have moved the vehicle almost five feet
forward, and have it traveling over 6 1/2 MPH.  By the end of the two second
surge, if nothing is done, the car would be doing 13 MPH and have gone nearly
twenty feet.

No hypothetical "pedal misapplication" is necessary to make such a vehicle
hazardous, and while zero-to-sixty in under ten seconds may not be full
throttle for an Audi, it's close enough for me.

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