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RISKS Digest 27.84

Wednesday 16 April 2014

Spider threat fixed by software

Martyn Thomas <martyn@thomas-associates.co.uk>

Date: Sat, 12 Apr 2014 16:00:54 +0100

"Petrol-sniffing spiders have forced Mazda to issue a voluntary recall notice so it can apply a software fix to its cars." http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-26921734

De-bugging was tried first, but failed.

Whitehat hacker goes too far, gets raided by FBI, tells all

Sean Gallagher <neumann@csl.sri.com>

Date: Fri, 11 Apr 2014 7:57:29 PDT

Sean Gallagher, *Ars Technica*, 9 Apr 2014 [via "InfoSec News". PGN] http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2014/04/whitehat-hacker-goes-too-far-gets-raided-by-fbi-tells-all/

A whitehat hacker from the Baltimore suburbs went too far in his effort to drive home a point about a security vulnerability he reported to a client. Now he's unemployed and telling all on reddit.

David Helkowski was working for Canton Group, a Baltimore-based software consulting firm on a project for the University of Maryland (UMD), when he claims he found malware on the university's servers that could be used to gain access to personal data of students and faculty. But he says his employer and the university failed to take action on the report, and the vulnerability remained in place even after a data breach exposed more than 300,000 students' and former students' Social Security numbers.

As Helkowski said to a co-worker in Steam chat, "I got tired of being ignored, so I forced their hand." He penetrated the university's network from home, working over multiple VPNs, and downloaded the personal data of members of the university's security task force. He then posted the data to Pastebin and e-mailed the members of the task force anonymously on 15 Mar.

One day later, the FBI obtained a search warrant for Helkowski's home. While no charges have yet been filed against him, Helkowski's employment with Canton Group has ended. And yesterday, he took to reddit to tell everyone about it in a post entitled "IamA Hacker who was Raided by the FBI and Secret Service AMAA!" To prove his identity, he even posted a redacted copy of the search warrant he was served.

How did the FBI track him down so fast? It turns out that Helkowski told just about everyone (including co-workers) about what he was doing. And since the vulnerability he used was the same one Canton Group had reported to UMD on 27 Feb, it didn't take a lot of sleuthing to follow a trail that pointed straight back to Helkowski's home in the Baltimore suburb of Parkville. [...]

OpenSSL Mallocware = Malware

Henry Baker <hbaker1@pipeline.com>

Date: Thu, 10 Apr 2014 21:52:26 -0700

This "heartbleed" bug is indeed heartbreaking to all us computer scientists who have worked entire careers to provide computer languages and tools in which these kinds of bugs simply can't happen.

Buffer overflows and memory allocation bugs stopped being funny when I was still an undergraduate in the 1960's. If you won't use a memory safe programming language, perhaps you should return your Computer Science degree. Memory misuse bugs now cost companies fortunes, and with autos, airplanes and medical appliances so dependent upon software, these bugs will cost people their lives.

This use of unsafe programming languages is no longer just sloppy programming; it's now negligent MALpractice. Sooner or later, a software "engineer" will lose his/her house as a result of such malpractice; juries will simply lose patience with an industry that refuses to implement even the most rudimentary safety precautions such as memory-safe programming.

There's a reason _malloc_ is called _MALloc_: it's MALware!

http://www.tedunangst.com/flak/post/analysis-of-openssl-freelist-reuse

analysis of openssl freelist reuse

About two days ago, I was poking around with OpenSSL to find a way to mitigate Heartbleed. I soon discovered that in its default config, OpenSSL ships with exploit mitigation countermeasures, and when I disabled the countermeasures, OpenSSL stopped working entirely. That sounds pretty bad, but at the time I was too frustrated to go on. Last night I returned to the scene of the crime.

freelist

OpenSSL uses a custom freelist for connection buffers because long ago and far away, malloc was slow. Instead of telling people to find themselves a better malloc, OpenSSL incorporated a one-off LIFO freelist. You guessed it. OpenSSL misuses the LIFO freelist. In fact, the bug I

The Heartbleed Challenge

cloudflarechallenge via Monty Solomon <monty@roscom.com>

Date: Sat, 12 Apr 2014 03:12:15 -0400

Can you steal the keys from this server?

So far, two people have independently solved the Heartbleed Challenge. The first was submitted at 4:22:01 PT by Fedor Indutny (@indutny). He sent at least 2.5 million requests over the span of the challenge, this was approximately 30% of all the requests we saw. The second was submitted at 5:12:19 PT by Ilkka Mattila of NCSC-FI using around 100 thousand requests.

We confirmed that both of these individuals have the private key and that it was obtained through Heartbleed exploits. We rebooted the server at 3:08 PT, which may have contributed to the key being available in memory, but we can't be certain. [...]

https://www.cloudflarechallenge.com/heartbleed

Re: How Heartbleed Broke the Internet, And Why It Can Happen Again

Jonathan S. Shapiro <shap@eros-os.org>

Date: Tuesday, April 15, 2014

[Via Dave Farber's IP distribution. PGN]

In the aftermath of Heartbleed, several opinions have been posed on the IP list that are not supported by the evidence. I'd like to address some of them briefly:

THE MANY EYEBALLS DEBATE

This discussion seems to have originated with Stephen Henson at Wired. Henson proposes that professionally paid eyeballs and rigorous quality assurances catch bugs like Heartbleed. It's hard to say whether this
*particular* issue would have been caught, but this proposition has been tested repeatedly, and it's thoroughly discredited. Attackers have consistently been able to slip bugs into the source code of programs even when those applications use a very careful, disciplined, multi-party review process. The attacker success rate is so close to 100% as makes no difference.

Henson goes on to pursue a largely uninformed and unsubstantiated diatribe about Open Source software that is mostly nonsense, but as much as I like open source, Gumby Wallace's appeal to the so-called "many eyeballs effect" (or as Eric Raymond put it originally: "With enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow.") is misguided. First, it depends a lot on the quality of the eyeballs; as with everything else, reviewer quality and skill follows a normal distribution. Mr. Raymond has long since acknowledged to me privately that his slogan was created for the purpose of marketing open source, and is technically very problematic. But second, refer back to what I said above: when qualified reviewers have been consciously selected and are operating under a careful, deliberate, and concerted review process, the bad guys still exceed the Ivory Snow metric; they win more than 99 and 44/100% of the time. It doesn't matter if the process involved is open source or closed source.

The *important* advantages of Open Source in this discussion are (1) that a repair for a critical bug, once found, can be locally applied in minutes, and (2) if it's critical enough, you can dig in and fix it yourself. This is in strong contrast to closed source products where the turnaround time from bug report to patch is best measured in months or years and the customer is essentially helpless while the repair deployment process slowly grinds along.

Abe Singer responded to Mr. Wallace with some comments on the importance of diversity. Intuitively this makes sense, but there is a disturbing doctoral dissertation from Columbia that examined this proposition empirically and found it lacking. They showed that two groups of programmers operating from the same specification in complete isolation from each other tend to make highly correlated mistakes. Diversity would be very valuable if we could actually achieve it, and there has been interesting work on achieving diversity through automated means. In the mean time, a lot of our battle could be eliminated by adoption of safe programming languages and type systems. That would at least leave us time to think about the other half of the problem.

LEGACY HARDWARE

Brett Glass chimed in about the benefits of segmented hardware, referencing the Intel platforms of his youth. Matt Kauffman responded discussing the Intel architecture's evolution, but he didn't really question the premise.

First, I note that Mr. Glass wants much more than mere segmentation, and Intel's i432 did a decent job of architecting what he seems to want. I'd refer him to the excellent post-hoc assessment on that machine by Colwell, Gehringer, and Jensen: Performance Effects of Architectural Complexity in the Intel 432. After reading that paper, it's instructive to follow up by reading Fleisch: The Failure of Personalities to Generalize, and then see if anybody has had the stones to publicly write up the failure of the Itanium. The point being that when things get too complex, it becomes inherently impossible either to manage their complexity or to limit their pace of rework to the point where something actually gets finished.

There certainly *are* useful changes to hardware that would improve things, but segmentation isn't one of them. There are three reasons for this:

1. Segmentation requires language level support that has long since gone the way of the dinosaur. Ultimately, *this* is why segments were removed from the Intel hardware. The programming languages that can use them no longer exist. So it isn't just a matter of restoring this feature to the hardware. It would require hundreds of *billions* of dollars worth of new software. If we're going to undertake that kind of cost, there are better yields to be had than what we can get from segmentation.

Ivan Goddard has been working on an interesting variation on segments, but I'm very skeptical that he'll be able to make his approach work with mainstream languages.

2. Modern safe languages almost entirely subsume the benefits of segmentation. When combined with strong type systems, they even let us do cross-process object sharing with sane semantics, which paging+segmentation has a very hard time supporting. There is an argument that hardware checking holds up better against ambient background ionizing radiation, but that argument becomes dubious when examined critically in modern implementations. As a software-only approach, I'd point Brett and other interested readers at the very successful work that Brad Chen and his team have done on software component sandboxing in "Native Client".

3. From a formal verification perspective, segmentation introduces aliasing in the ground memory model. This makes formal verification *much* harder than a flat memory model.

WHAT WE NEED

At the risk of running afoul of "this is new, therefore better", I think that there *are* some things hardware could give us with minimal and compatible change that would make an enormous difference. The main impediment to wide adoption of safe languages at this point is cost of conversion and the unpredictability of garbage collection performance. The first is incrementally getting fixed, and the second seems to have given way in the face of recent work on continuous concurrent collection. There are two things we could use from the hardware that are useful for a broad range of applications that would significantly improve and simplify the concurrent collection problem:

* Recursive virtualization, where an application can set memory page permissions on itself.
* Support for scheduler activations, or at least user-mode fault delivery.

Recursive virtualization has mostly happened on the later 64-bit Intel processors, and exists in preliminary form on the 64 bit ARM machines.

Implementing scheduler activations is possible on 64-bit Intel systems, but turns out not to be possible on 32-bit ARM processors because of a flaw in the design of processor status word handling. I talked to Richard Grisenthwaite (ARM's principal architect) about fixing this in ARM64 at one point, but I'm not sure what impact, if any, that conversation ultimately had.

Please note that both of these are *general* architectural features that have many applications. High-performance GC is just one of them. Better still: both can be implemented without breaking current software in any way.

Jonathan S. Shapiro, Ph.D., Managing Partner,, PixelFab, LLC

"CRA loses 900 SIN numbers through Heartbleed bug"

Candice So via Gene Wirchenko <genew@telus.net>

Date: Tue, 15 Apr 2014 18:14:23 -0700

[CRA is the Canada Revenue Agency (the Canadian equivalent of the IRS), and a SIN Number is the Canadian equivalent of the U.S. SSN.]

Candice So, *IT Business*, 14 Apr 2014 CRA loses 900 SIN numbers through Heartbleed bug http://www.itbusiness.ca/news/cra-loses-900-sin-numbers-through-heartbleed-bug/48041

Vicious Heartbleed bug bites millions of Android phones, other devices

Dan Goodin <monty@roscom.com>

Date: Wed, 16 Apr 2014 02:28:08 -0400

Dan Goodin, Ars Technica, 14 Apr 2014 Not the exclusive province of servers, Heartbleed can hack end users, too.

The catastrophic Heartbleed security bug that has already bitten Yahoo Mail, the Canada Revenue Agency, and other public websites also poses a formidable threat to end-user applications and devices, including millions of Android handsets, security researchers warned.

Handsets running version 4.1.1 of Google's mobile operating system are vulnerable to attacks that might pluck passwords, the contents of personal messages, and other private information out of device memory, a company official warned on Friday. Marc Rogers, principal security researcher at Lookout Mobile, a provider of anti-malware software for Android phones, said some versions of Android 4.2.2 that have been customized by the carriers or hardware manufacturers have also been found to be susceptible. Rogers said other releases may contain the critical Heartbleed flaw as well. Officials with BlackBerry have warned the company's messenger app for iOS, Mac OS X, Android, and Windows contains the critical defect and have released an update to correct it. ...

http://arstechnica.com/security/2014/04/vicious-heartbleed-bug-bites-millions-of-android-phones-other-devices/

All sent and received e-mails in Gmail will be analyzed, says Google

Casey Johnston <monty@roscom.com>

Date: April 16, 2014 at 1:50:38 EDT

Casey Johnston, Ars Technica, 15 Apr 2014 The new text might be a reaction to the e-mail scanning lawsuit.

Google added a paragraph to its terms of service as of Monday to tell customers that, yes, it does scan e-mail content for advertising and customized search results, among other reasons. The change comes as Google undergoes a lawsuit over its e-mail scanning, with the plaintiffs complaining that Google violated their privacy.

E-mail users brought the lawsuit against Google in 2013, alleging that the company was violating wiretapping laws by scanning the content of e-mails. The plaintiffs' complaints vary, but some of the cases include people who sent their e-mails to Gmail users from non-Gmail accounts and nonetheless had their content scanned. They argue that since they didn't use Gmail, they didn't consent to the scanning. ...

<http://arstechnica.com/business/2014/04/google-adds-to-tos-yes-we-scan-all-your-e-mails/>

"Digital Privacy Act allows companies to hand over customer information without warrant or consent"

Brian Jackson <genew@telus.net>

Date: Fri, 11 Apr 2014 10:21:29 -0700

Brian Jackson, *IT Business*, 10 Apr 2014 http://www.itbusiness.ca/article/digital-privacy-act-allows-companies-to-hand-over-customer-information-without-warrant-or-consent

selected text:

Canada's Research Chair of Internet and e-commerce law is concerned that the newly introduced Digital Privacy Act could actually result in the personal information of more Canadians being given away without their consent or knowledge, he writes in a new blog post.

Michael Geist combed over the legislation tabled in the Senate earlier this week and discovered this nugget of legalese that expands warrantless disclosure:

... an organization may disclose personal information without the knowledge or consent of the individual

Apple, Samsung, mobile carriers to debut anti-theft kill switch in 2015

Cyrus Farivar <monty@roscom.com>

Date: Wed, 16 Apr 2014 02:01:09 -0400

Cyrus Farivar, Ars Technica, 15 Apr 2014 Voluntary industry move appears to get ahead of pending anti-theft bill.

Rather than waiting for pending legislation to mandate an anti-theft kill switch, the leading mobile phone manufacturers and service providers-including Apple, Samsung, Huawei, AT&T, T-Mobile, Verizon, and Sprint-came together Tuesday to impose their own solution.

The new "Smartphone Anti-Theft Voluntary Commitment" stipulates that new phones made after July 2015 will have a "preloaded or downloadable" anti-theft tool.

Two months ago, Mark Leno, a California state senator introduced a bill in response to the rise of smartphone theft. More than 50 percent of all robberies in San Francisco involve a smartphone, according to law enforcement statistics Leno cites in his bill. Sections of the bill also note that smartphone theft was up 12 percent in Los Angeles in 2012, and nationwide, 113 smartphones are lost or stolen each minute.

Should the California bill become law in the Golden State, it likely would have a dramatic effect on sales of mobile phones across the US as companies could not afford to ignore the country's most populous state. ...

http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2014/04/apple-samsung-mobile-carriers-to-debut-anti-theft-kill-switch-in-2015/

Fingerprint lock in Samsung Galaxy 5 easily defeated by whitehat hackers

Dan Goodin <monty@roscom.com>

Date: Wed, 16 Apr 2014 01:58:10 -0400

Dan Goodin, Ars Technica, 15 Apr 2014 Multiple weaknesses put devices and PayPal accounts within reach of attackers.

The heavily marketed fingerprint sensor in Samsung's new Galaxy 5 smartphone has been defeated by whitehat hackers who were able to gain unfettered access to a PayPal account linked to the handset.

The hack, by researchers at Germany's Security Research Labs, is the latest to show the drawbacks of using fingerprints, iris scans, and other physical characteristics to authenticate an owner's identity to a computing device. ...

http://arstechnica.com/security/2014/04/fingerprint-lock-in-samsung-galaxy-5-easily-defeated-by-whitehat-hackers/

Unintended Denial of Service by Banking Security

Toby Douglass <trd@45mercystreet.net>

Date: Sun, 13 Apr 2014 02:53:01 +0100

I recently lived in New York City for a period. I opened an account with the Bank of America, an international account, sans SSN. Upon departing, I moved to Tunis and began using my Dutch bank account, for the lower card-use charges, and so wished to transfer my US balance to the Dutch account.

Upon coming to make this transfer, I discover BoA prevents accounts being emptied by attackers imposes a transfer limit of one thousand US dollars per day. It is possible to raise the limit to ten thousand dollars (which of course even then may or may not be enough), by subscribing to a two-factor authentication scheme, but this scheme, although usable outside the USA, can only be subscribed to within the USA.

It is fair to say BoA has indeed prevented accounts from being emptied, by dint of applying this security mechanism, but emptying accounts is in fact normal functionality and the mechanism to permit this normal functionality is offered only to a subset of users.

As matters stand, customers who leave the US and then discover this security mechanism must pay a 2.5% fee to remit their balance, as there is a 25 USD fee per transfer.

"Microsoft confirms it's dropping Windows 8.1 support"

Woody Leonhard <genew@telus.net>

Date: Mon, 14 Apr 2014 11:13:50 -0700

[Warning: AFAICS, the problem is that a new updating system has to be installed, but many are having trouble installing it, but Microsoft is cutting support if one does not have the update. The headline is somewhat accurate and somewhat misleading.]

Woody Leonhard | InfoWorld, 14 Apr 2014 Microsoft TechNet blog makes clear that Windows 8.1 will not be patched; users must get Windows 8.1 Update if they want security patches http://www.infoworld.com/t/microsoft-windows/microsoft-confirms-its-dropping-windows-81-support-240407