Last year, a Chinese whitehat hacker group, the Keen Security Lab at Tencent, managed to remotely hack the Tesla Model S through a malicious wifi hotspot. Tesla quickly pushed a fix through an over-the-air software update but now the same research group has managed to again gain control of Tesla's vehicles. <https://electrek.co/2016/09/20/first-tesla-model-s-remotely-controlled-hackers-tesla-pushed-a-fix/> <https://electrek.co/2016/09/27/tesla-releases-more-details-on-the-chinese-hack-and-the-subsequent-fix/>, The hack involved tricking a Tesla drivers into accessing a malicious website through a wifi hotspot and then install their own software in order to gain access to some of the car's features—more importantly, the braking system. Tesla's fix included adding code signing in order to prevent anyone else from uploading software on Tesla's system, but now Keen Lab says that they managed to by-pass the code signing with the latest round of vulnerabilities testing on Tesla's car. Here they list their new exploit this year: [...] https://electrek.co/2017/07/28/tesla-hack-keen-lab/ [See also (noted by Monty Solomon):] Chinese group hacks a Tesla for the second year in a row https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2017/07/28/chinese-group-hacks-tesla-second-year-row/518430001/
via NNSquad http://www.sacbee.com/news/business/technology/article162838593.html Russia's parliament has outlawed the use of virtual private networks, or VPNs, and other Internet proxy services, citing concerns about the spread of extremist materials. The State Duma on Friday unanimously passed a bill that would oblige Internet providers to block websites that offer VPN services. Many Russians use VPNs to access blocked content by routing connections through servers outside the country. The lawmakers behind the bill argued that the move could help to enforce Russia's ban on disseminating extremist content online. This has nothing to do with terrorist extremism, and everything to do with Putin's murderous censorship regime.
John Gilmore famously stated of Internet censorship that "The Net interprets censorship as damage and routes around it".  <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_censorship> <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Gilmore_(activist)#cite_note-Censorship-4> vis-a-vis: > Date: July 25, 2017 at 10:49:19 AM EDT > From: Dewayne Hendricks <firstname.lastname@example.org> > Subject: Hackers undermine Russia's attempts to control the Internet* > [Note: This item comes from friend Steve Goldstein. DLH] Alec Luhn in Moscow, The Guardian, 25 Jul 2017 Hackers undermine Russia's attempts to control the Internet. Authorities have blacklisted thousands of sites for political dissent since Putin's re-election in 2012—but activists have subverted the system https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jul/25/hackers-undermine-russias-attempts-to-control-the-internet Moscow's attempt to control the Internet inside Russia has come unstuck following a campaign by hackers who have subverted a system of blacklisting sites deemed inappropriate. Since Vladimir Putin's re-election in 2012, authorities have banned thousands of sites—some for promoting social ills, others for political dissent—by inscribing their particulars on a blacklist and forcing Internet service providers (ISPs) to block them. But in recent weeks, activists seeking to push back against the crackdown have undermined the system by purchasing banned sites and inserting the particulars of perfectly legal web pages into their domain names. Havoc ensued. Last month, cash machines belonging to big state banks VTB and Sberbank stopped working. Major news sites and social media services were blocked and even Google became inaccessible. Andrei Soldatov, author of The Red Web, a book about Russia's online surveillance: “The Kremlin proved incapable of putting the Internet under control by technical means. The only thing that partly works is intimidation of companies and users. To make intimidation more effective you need to make the rules more vague and complicated, to make almost everyone guilty by definition.'' With the blacklisting system looking vulnerable, the fear is that the authorities will retaliate by introducing an even harsher system of control on what web users can view. Already they have created a new whitelist of sites that can never be blocked. And last week, parliament passed a law banning the use of virtual private networks (VPNs), used by many to access blocked content. Hundreds of people staged a protest march in Moscow at the weekend to object to online censorship. The Internet cat-and-mouse game started five years ago when the state telecoms watchdog, Roskomnadzor, was given broad powers to censor the Russian web via amendments to a law drafted to “protect children from information harming their health and development.'' This provided for the creation of a register, or blacklist, of banned sites that Internet service providers were required to block. Wikipedia, LiveJournal, Russia's largest social network VK and largest search engine Yandex protested the law as a crackdown on the freedom of information. With its blacklist, Roskomnadzor went after sites containing child pornography and information on narcotics and suicide. But it also bans pages for *extremist statements*, a slippery term that has been applied to everything from terrorist groups to liberal opposition news sites, and for information about unsanctioned public demonstrations. In the first two years, more than 50,000 web sites were blocked, some 4,000 of them for extremism. Sites can be blocked based on a court decision or a complaint by government agencies or citizens. [...]
NNSquad https://www.engadget.com/2017/07/27/facebook-helped-blunt-russian-meddling-in-french-elections/ Facebook played a key role in identifying and stopping Russian interference in the recent French election, a US congressman has revealed. During the attack, Russian intelligence operatives attempted to spy on Emmanuel Macron's election campaign by posing as friends of Macron's and attempting to glean information. This was in conjunction with the previously reported Russian interference, where spies also used fake Facebook accounts to spread misinformation about the French election.
via NNSquad http://www.cnn.com/2017/07/21/asia/china-internet-censorship/index.html As Liu Xiaobo, the Chinese Nobel Peace Prize laureate, lay dying in a heavily-guarded hospital last month, there was little mention of his fate in China. For many younger Chinese, Liu is an unknown figure, the culmination of years of intense censorship of his life and works. The tiny minority who did attempt to express outrage online at Liu's treatment, or commemorate him after he succumbed to liver cancer on July 14, saw their posts blocked and images deleted. On Weibo, China's most popular Twitter-like platform, users were prevented from posting messages with the words "Nobel," "liver cancer," "RIP" or the candle emoji, according to researchers at Toronto's Citizen Lab and Hong Kong's Weiboscope.
Most people know about phishing—but one casino recently learned about the dangers of actual fish tanks. Hackers attempted to steal data from a North American casino through a fish tank connected to the Internet, according to a report from security firm Darktrace. Despite extra security precautions set up on the fish tank, hackers still managed to compromise the tank to send data to a device in Finland before the threat was discovered and stopped. "Someone used the fish tank to get into the network, and once they were in the fish tank, they scanned and found other vulnerabilities and moved laterally to other places in the network," Justin Fier, director for cyber intelligence and analysis at Darktrace, explained to CNN Tech. http://money.cnn.com/2017/07/19/technology/fish-tank-hack-darktrace/index.html
The country laid out a development plan on Thursday to become the world leader in AI by 2030, aiming to surpass its rivals technologically and build a domestic industry worth almost $150 billion. Released by the State Council, the policy is a statement of intent from the top rungs of China's government: The world's second-largest economy will be investing heavily to ensure its companies, government and military leap to the front of the pack in a technology many think will one day form the basis of computing. The plan comes with China preparing a multibillion-dollar national investment initiative to support moonshot projects, start-ups and academic research in A.I., according to two professors who consulted with the government about the effort. The United States, meanwhile, has cut back on science funding. In budget proposals, the Trump administration has suggested slashing resources for a number of agencies that have traditionally backed research in AI. Other cuts, to areas like high-performance computing, would affect the development of the tools that make AI work. https://mobile.nytimes.com/2017/07/20/business/china-artificial-intelligence.html
Patrick Nelson, *Network World*, 19 Jul 2017 via ACM TechNews, 21 Jul 2017 Read TechNews Online at: http://technews.acm.org Researchers at the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) have developed Deep Generative Multiview Model (DGMM), a mind-reading program that deciphers symbols that people have viewed. The software scans a person's brain activity and then redraws the numerals and symbols previously seen by the subject. The program uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) imaging to analyze the visual cortex and capture brain activity data. The researchers then run an algorithm on the data, which interprets the signals and maps them, thus recreating the image. "Now, eerily sophisticated software is starting to decode that brain activity and assign meaning to it; fMRI is also becoming a window on the mind," the CAS researchers say. Although other techniques have been used to achieve the same feat, the CAS researchers claim their method is the most accurate. The researchers say their technology eventually could be used to record and re-watch dreams. https://orange.hosting.lsoft.com/trk/click?ref=3Dznwrbbrs9_6-15cf8x2127c6x080147&
Dear Technologists: User Experience Isn't an App or a Feature. It's Everything. What about the unboxing experience? What about customer service? It all matters, Siminoff said. "Talking someone through downloading an app is user experience. It's really the end-to-end [experience]." Siminoff added that he often receives feedback that a competitor's video doorbell has better hardware. "Who gives a shit?" he asked. "Our customers aren't buying it because of that. They're buying it because it makes their homes safer." It's the complete package that matters, he added. The only danger is to not get too far behind on technology relative to competing products. http://fortune.com/2017/07/20/user-experience-everything/ CEO wondering "Who gives a sh*t?" about better hardware seems good argument against buying Ring. Better hardware might last longer, not rust, be upgradeable, have better connectivity, be more reliable. Even look better.
Over 45,000 users have left one-star reviews on a company's Facebook page after the business reported a security researcher to police and had him arrested in the middle of the night instead of fixing a reported bug. The arrest took place this week in Hungary after an 18-year-old found a flaw in the online ticket-selling system of Budapesti KÃ¶zlekedÃ©si KÃ¶zpont (BKK), Budapest's public transportation authority. Teen hacks company using browser's DevTools. The young man discovered that he could access BKK's website, press F12 to enter the browser's developer tools mode, and modify the page's source code to alter a ticket's price. Because there was no client or server-side validation put in place, the BKK system accepted the operation and issued a ticket at a smaller price. As a demo, the young man says he bought a ticket initially priced at 9459 Hungarian forints ($35) for 50 Hungarian forints (20 US cents). https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/45-000-facebook-users-leave-one-star-ratings-after-hackers-unjust-arrest/
Pay by the hand. A Wisconsin software company called Three Square Market is offering to implant microchips in employees' hands. The chip will work for mobile payments and as a computer ID, but does not have GPS or a tracking component. "It's the next thing that's inevitably going to happen and we want to be a part of it," says CEO Todd Westby. The company designs software for break room markets that are commonly found in office complexes. http://kstp.com/news/wisconsin-company-to-implant-microchips-in-employees-three-square-market/4549459/ ...because carrying cash or a phone is too hard?
NNSquad (PGN-rearranged) http://www.sfchronicle.com/business/technology/article/Pokemon-Go-Fest-has-troubles-moving-11307747.php Niantic Inc.'s John Hanke said "the whole Niantic team" was working to fix a glitch in the server and log-on problems with cellular service providers AT&T, Sprint and Verizon. Some in attendance paid as much as $400 online for the tickets when they sold out within minutes of their June release. The Chicago Tribune reported the festival's organizers decided to issue refunds for the $20 tickets and $100 in credits for use on the app. The Chicago Sun-Times reported the CEO of the game's developer was booed when he tried to explain the problem to the crowd.
NNSquad https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/21/business/dealbook/wells-fargo-confidential-data-release.html?partner=rss&emc=rss When a lawyer for Gary Sinderbrand, a former Wells Fargo employee, subpoenaed the bank as part of a defamation lawsuit against a bank employee, he and Mr. Sinderbrand expected to receive a selection of emails and documents related to the case. But what landed in Mr. Sinderbrand's hands on July 8 went far beyond what his lawyer had asked for: Wells Fargo had turned over—by accident, according to the bank's lawyer—a vast trove of confidential information about tens of thousands of the bank's wealthiest clients. The 1.4 gigabytes of files that Wells Fargo's lawyer sent included copious spreadsheets with customers' names and Social Security numbers, paired with financial details like the size of their investment portfolios and the fees the bank charged them. Most are customers of Wells Fargo Advisors, the arm of the bank that caters to high-net-worth investors. By Mr. Sinderbrand's estimate, he has financial information for at least 50,000 individual customers. In all, Mr. Sinderbrand said, these clients have tens of billions of dollars invested through Wells Fargo, all laid out in vivid detail for him as part of the discovery process in his lawsuit.
The Roomba is generally regarded as a cute little robot friend that no one but dogs would consider to be a potential menace. But for the last couple of years, the robovacs have been quietly mapping homes to maximize efficiency. Now, the device's makers plan to sell that data to smart home device manufacturers, turning the friendly robot into a creeping, creepy little spy. http://gizmodo.com/roombas-next-big-step-is-selling-maps-of-your-home-to-t-1797187829 Very helpful, article shows ad for ... Roomba.
A student has been unable to get a loan for university because someone with the same name, birthday and born in the same area has already applied for one. Full story at: http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-birmingham-40707719 Isn't it time designers of personal info database systems would learn that name and DOB are not enough to identify a person uniquely? A search through the RISKS archive comes up with about 20 items of "your computer cannot do twins" type; the earliest is in RISKS-4.05, dated Nov.1986!
NNSquad https://www.wired.com/story/bugs-in-popular-hacker-tools-open-the-door-to-striking-back The concept of "hacking back" has drawn attention-and generated controversy-lately as geopolitics focuses increasingly on the threat of cyberwar. The idea that cyberattack victims should be legally allowed to hack their alleged assailants has even motivated a bill, the Active Cyber Defense Certainty Act, that representative Tom Graves of Georgia has shared for possible introduction this fall. And though many oppose hacking back as a dangerous and morally ambiguous slippery slope, research shows that, for better or worse, in many cases it wouldn't be all that hard. It turns out that many popular hacking tools are themselves riddled with vulnerabilities. That doesn't necessarily make returning fire on incoming hacks a good idea, but it does show that attackers often don't pay all that much attention to security. As the idea of hacking back gains support it could eventually cost them.
https://www.prlog.org/12653576-three-square-market-microchips-employees-company-wide.html Three Square Market Microchips Employees Company-Wide—Three Square Market PRLog, July 20, 2017 River Falls, Wis. - Three Square Market (32M) is offering implanted chip technology to all of their employees on August 1st, 2017. Employees will be implanted with a RFID chip allowing them to make purchases in their break room micro market, open doors, login to computers, use the copy machine, etc. This program, offered by 32M, is optional for all employees. The company is expecting over 50 staff members to be voluntarily chipped. 32M is partnering with BioHax International and Jowan Osterland, CEO, based out of Sweden. RFID technology or Radio-Frequency Identification uses electromagnetic fields to identify electronically stored information. Often referred to as "chip" technology, this option has become very popular in the European marketplace. The chip implant uses near-field communications (NFC); the same technology used in contactless credit cards and mobile payments. A chip is implanted between the thumb and forefinger underneath the skin within seconds. A micro market, also known as a break room market, has become a staple in the U.S. with over 20,000 locations and growing. While in existence for over a decade in the American workplace, the international community began to embrace this only a few years ago. A micro market is a mini convenience store located right in the employee break room using a self-checkout kiosk, similar to what is found at many major retailers. Businesses see multiple benefits when adding a micro market to their location, such as increased employee morale and productivity. 32M entered this growing industry over four years ago and is rapidly growing in market share and believes this technology will help it continue this trajectory. "We foresee the use of RFID technology to drive everything from making purchases in our office break room market, opening doors, use of copy machines, logging into our office computers, unlocking phones, sharing business cards, storing medical/health information, and used as payment at other RFID terminals. Eventually, this technology will become standardized allowing you to use this as your passport, public transit, all purchasing opportunities, etc." commented 32M CEO, Todd Westby. [MORE] I'd like mine implanted on the tip of my middle finger, please. . .
Ranks right up there with backhoe vs. fiber optic line.. or squirrel vs. transformer.. [North Carolina] OBX blackout: Mandatory evacuation, state of emergency on Ocracoke Island Thousands were without power on Ocracoke and Hatteras islands on Thursday and officials were unsure when it will be restored. The Cape Hatteras Electric Cooperative said on Thursday that it could take several days or even weeks before power can be restored on Hatteras and Ocracoke. PCL Construction, the company building the new Bonner Bridge, told CHEC that at about 4:30 a.m. on Thursday, its crews drove a steel casing into the underground transmission cable running between the south end of the bridge and the overhead riser pole, causing the outage. [...] http://www.newsobserver.com/news/local/article164046057.html
Sweden's Transport Agency moved all of its data to "the cloud", apparently unaware that there is no cloud, only somebody else's computer. In doing so, it exposed and leaked every conceivable top secret database: fighter pilots, SEAL team operators, police suspects, people under witness relocation. Names, photos, and home addresses: the list is just getting started. The responsible director has been found guilty in criminal court of the whole affair, and sentenced to the harshest sentence ever seen in Swedish government: she was docked half a month's paycheck. Worst known governmental leak ever is slowly coming to light: Agency moved nation's secret data to "The Cloud". Rick Falkvinge, Privacy News Online, 21 Jul 2017 Many governments have had partial leaks in terms of method (Snowden) or relations (Manning) lately, but this is the first time I'm aware that the full treasure chest of every single top-secret governmental individual with photo, name, and home address has leaked. It goes to show, again, that governments can't even keep their most secret data under wraps - so any governmental assurances to keep your data safe have as much value as a truckload of dead rats in a tampon factory. It started out with a very speedy trial where a Director General in Sweden was fined half a month's pay. Given how much the establishment has got each other's backs, this sentence was roughly equivalent to life in prison for a common person on the street, meaning they must have done something really awful to get not just a guilty verdict, but actually be fined half a month's salary. On digging, it turns out the Swedish Transport Agency moved all its data to "the cloud", as managed by IBM, two years ago. Something was found amiss when the Director General of the Transport Agency, Maria Egren, was quickly retired from her position this January - but it was only on July 6 that it became known that she was found guilty of exposing classified information in a criminal court of law. The scandal quickly escalated from there. There's an enormous amount of data in Swedish about the overall leak scandal, but among all that data, one piece bears mentioning just to highlight the generally sloppy, negligent, and indeed criminal, attitude toward sensitive information: Last March, the entire register of vehicles was sent to marketers subscribing to it. This is normal in itself, as the vehicle register is public information, and therefore subject to Freedom-of-Information excerpts. What was not normal were two things: first, that people in the witness protection program and similar programs were included in the register distributed outside the Agency, and second, when this fatal mistake was discovered, a new version without the sensitive identities was not distributed with instructions to destroy the old copy. Instead, the sensitive identities were pointed out and named in a second distribution with a request for all subscribers to remove these records themselves. This took place in open cleartext e-mail. Take this incident and scale it up to everyday behavior at a whole agency with key responsibility for safeguarding national secrets. At present, these databases are known to have been exposed, by moving them to "The Cloud" as if it were just a random buzzword: [...] https://www.privateinternetaccess.com/blog/2017/07/swedish-transport-agency-worst-known-governmental-leak-ever-is-slowly-coming-to-light/ [Also, Donald B. Wagner noted this item:] https://www.thelocal.se/20170717/swedish-authority-handed-over-keys-to-the-kingdom-in-it-security-slip-up
Squirrels causing self-driving car accidents (that inadvertently also kill the squirrel) will never occur more than ten times in Perth, Western Australia. There's only ten of them. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-07-07/the-rise-and-fall-of-perths-palm-squirrel-pest-population/8683784
Probably not news, but an article in a recent newspaper gives a clue to possible UK future electricity policy. Problem is that many conventional coal and gas power stations are being closed due to being too old and/or too polluting, renewable energy (wind and solar) is only available in short bursts and not necessarily when needed, European natural gas sources are dwindling and a lot of other countries are competing over supplies, and nuclear power is still some years in the future, as it has been since the 1950s; reportedly, the margin between available generating capacity and likely demand peaks is becoming vanishingly small, while the Government has just announced a big plan to change us all to electric cars... One obvious RISK is worrying if your freezer will still be frozen in the morning. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4725424/Government-brings-new-energy-rules.html Summary: > Energy firms could be allowed to switch off consumers' freezers during > times of high demand as part of a new Government initiative designed to > save billions in electricity bills. > Customers who opt into the scheme would be offered reduced costs if they > allow a third party to power down their appliances at peak times. > The Government, regulator Ofgem and the industry are rolling out smart > meters and will bring in 'smart tariffs' for consumers to pay less for > off-peak power. > The Government will also introduce standards for electric vehicle > charging points so consumers can charge their cars when demand is low > and be paid for feeding power from cars back to the grid. > The Government hopes this will alleviate the need for expensive power > stations in the future.
Geoff Kuenning wrote that something similar happens for up to 14 hours per day when the Sun sets. Night can be longer than that at high latitudes. There is also the issue of wind generated power being intermittent. Fortunately there is a solution for large-scale storage of grid connected power. Folks can be forgiven for not being aware of this novel solution. It was such an obscure solution that Swiss and Italian Electric Utilities did not begin using it for leveling out electric supply and demand until the 1890s. http://spectrum.ieee.org/green-tech/wind/norway-wants-to-be-europes-battery https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bath_County_Pumped_Storage_Station
I read the posting by Turgut Kalfaglu and thought "what's new?" Brian Krebs posted a long expose of the problems of this sort associated with the FOSCAM units in Feb 2016. To summarize: They reach out to servers in China by default. There is an option to disable this in the menus but it doesn't work, they keep on doing it. The FOSCAM is white labeled into a lot of different products by different manufacturers. It wouldn't surprise me if this was another variant of the same hardware. I've been talking about these and other problems with IoT products for over 2 years. This is me (Youtube video) presenting at the Institute for Information Security Professionals conference in London last year on this very subject. F-Secure put out a press release in June this year about insecure webcams, including FOSCAM. There is a headline article on the front page of the (UK) Daily Telegraph today (25 July 2017) "Internet of things' will leave home gadgets vulnerable to hacks, senior police officer warns". For a variety of reasons that I won't speculate on for fear of being sued, many manufacturers are either not building in security to IoT products, not doing it right, not making products that are patchable or a combination of these things. I don't have the time or inclination to test these kind of devices myself and I've lived for a great many years without them. I don't have any IoT products in my house, and I don't plan to either.
> Date: Tue, 18 Jul 2017 07:47:32 +0300 > From: turgut kalfaglu <email@example.com> > Nowhere in the configuration does it mention that it sends information to > some "cloud". I wish people would stop using "cloud." To use "cloud" clouds one's judgment. "Cloud" is the same thing we used to call file-sharing, distributed computing, or time-sharing. It just means "somebody else's computer." firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org victoria.tc.ca/techrev/rms.htm http://www.infosecbc.org/links
On 20/07/17 18:24, Wols Lists wrote: > On 20/07/17 14:41, Martin Ward wrote: >> Anthony Youngman <email@example.com> wrote: >> >> The last occasion when a flaw was discovered in the axioms used >> to prove the correctness of programs (logic and basic set theory) >> was Russell's Paradox: > > And? The maths was flawed, it was incorrect. You claimed that "we keep on discovering, all too often, reality has a habit of saying `you've got the wrong axioms'". "We keep on discovering..." implies something which happens over and over again: certainly more than once! But that happened *once* over 100 years ago: and the flaw was discovered almost as soon as the set of axioms were proposed, and the flaw was fixed shortly afterward. The phrase "keep on discovering..." implies many occasions, certainly more than one. What are these occasions? Do you know how much mathematics has been built on top of the axioms of logic and set theory, and how many applications of that mathematics have been tested in reality in the last 100 years without uncovering a *single* further flaw in the axioms? Your argument has a much stronger application to engineering than computing: Newton's laws of motion are insufficient for space travel and needed to be "corrected" by special and general relativity. But rocket scientists still make extensive use of mathematics and rockets still (usually) reach their destinations. So your argument fails. But if it fails for rocket science, a fortiori it fails for software engineering (where the mathematics is much simpler and the axioms have not needed to be fixed for over 100 years). The application of mathematics to engineering is only valid when the laws of physics are understood to a sufficient degree of accuracy. Newton's laws are accurate enough for bridge building, but not for space travel. Physical laws are only valid in some possible worlds: the laws of physics are contingent. But mathematics is valid in *every* possible world: so there is no need to ensure that the axioms match reality (we don't do experiments to test if addition is commutative, for example!). This does not eliminate the need for testing, however. > After all, didn't Knuth understand exactly this when (I can't remember the > quote exactly) he said "I don't guarantee it will work, I have merely > proven it correct"? The correct quote is "Beware of bugs in the above code; I have only proved it correct, not tried it". (See http://www-cs-faculty.stanford.edu/~uno/faq.html) A proof does not guarantee the absence of bugs: because the proof might contain an error or the typed-in code might contain a typo. My first version of the polynomial algorithm had a bug caused by a typo. Bugs caused by typos are usually easy to spot: either via more careful proofreading, or because (as in my case) they cause the program to fail on almost every input value. But testing informally developed code is usually a long process with many iterations of the test/debug/fix cycle, and a high probability of residual security holes. On the other hand, testing provably correct code usually involves an initial proofread/test, fix any typos if necessary, then *all* the tests pass (in my experience).
In RISKS-30.39, Paul Fenimore makes the case "There is an analogy of old power circuit designs to old software that is not maintained but continues to operate in the high-risk environments found on networks." That reality is a lot closer than is comfortable. Although it's called the National Electrical Code, this is purely a model code, intended to be adopted by local jurisdictions. (To the poster in another forum that said it's nuts, only in the US would building codes be a local issue, please do remember that the building INSPECTOR is a local function). In the case of Lovington, NM, it appears that the NEC was adopted, specifically the 1956 version and has not been updated since. http://library.amlegal.com/nxt/gateway.dll/New%20Mexico/lovington_nm/title15buildingsandconstruction/chapter1508electricalcode 15.08.020 National Electrical Code adopted. The regulations contained in the National Electrical Code, 1956 Edition, as the same are now or may be amended, is adopted by reference and is declared to be a part of this chapter when not in conflict with a specific statement contained in the body of this chapter to the contrary. Copies of such regulations shall be kept on file in the office of the city manager. (Prior code 16-1-2) The use of GFI/GFCI became part of the NEC in 1975. As with software in various devices, just because the manufacturer (the NEC here) provides an update, there is no requirement to update requirements (the town code) or the installations (specific houses). The building code was updated to a more recent code (2009), e.g. http://www.lovington.org/uploads/1/0/7/2/10720033/ord-0546.pdf, but not as far as I can see, the electrical code!
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