Neil Foster from Marlborough and Neil Foster from Somerset are both 38, with brown hair, moustaches, and almost the same height. One was wanted for motor vehicle violations, but the other one got picked up. The other one also lost his job, his savings, and his car in the process. Wiltshire police blamed their computer. But other police admitted that the computer is "only an aid to identification, and information on it should always be cross-checked..." The real culprit was found after a three-month search by the other Neil Foster, who explained what had been happening and got the guilty one to go to the police. The national police computer system currently houses records of stolen and suspect vehicles, fingerprints, names of known criminals, wanted and missing persons, and disqualified drivers. Plans are underway to expand it to use by the courts, the crown prosecution service, probation service and prisons. It currently contains 25 million names. An individual may be identified by name, age, sex, height, and vehicle type. "In theory, with a correctly spelt name and date of birth, a case of mistaken identity should be impossible." [Source: An article by Stephen Davis and Nick Rufford in the Sunday Times, London, 10 January 1988, contributed anonymously.] Lousy theory. But in practice, I would think that adding birthplace might help reduce the probability of two people with the same identification. And what about someone who lies about his/her age or height? Here we have a case of an accidental name confusion. Other such cases have been reported in RISKS in which computer systems were implicated, but in which human laziness may ultimately have been to blame -- such as the Shirley Jackson and Sheila Jackson case in 1983. This should be contrasted with the case of Terry Dean Rogan, in which someone assumed his identity and caused him great grief. (Both of these cases were noted in Software Engineering Notes 10 3, July 1985.)
From: Jack Holleran <Holleran@DOCKMASTER.ARPA> [...] First, you need a sufficient strength to really erase. How much is enough? How much is enough? My last employer used a magnetic card key to provide us with access to the building on weekends or after hours. This was one of the old brute-force types, about 2 mm thick, made of a flexible ferrite-plastic composite like the magnet tape used to hold doors closed on refrigerators. The magnetic field from the card was strong enough to levitate a very small magnet inside the lock by a few thousandths, lifting it out of a hole and allowing the mechanism to move. Several magnets were randomly located above the card slot, and of course each could be oriented in either of two ways. Several people, myself included, had the bits wiped off our bank machine and/or credit cards which lived next to these card keys in our wallets. I have no idea how to relate this field strength in absolute numbers, however we could find the active spots in our cards by 'dowsing' for them with a staple on the end of a piece of thread. In other words, not very strong at all. Certainly not strong enough to work as a magnetic clasp. [Unrelated pet peeve] [But ironically related to Neil Foster in the first item above. PGN] I don't use the "III" suffix on my name out of vanity or pride; it isn't even on my birth certificate (although I am indeed the third William E. Brown in my family line). I started using it way back when my mail, checks and credit ratings started getting mixed up with others, including my own Father's. Do you have any idea how many people named Bill Brown there are in Los Angeles? Even with this fairly unique addition, I have still had lawyers, collection agencies and even private detectives threaten me with someone else's problems. Now for the computer connection: very few programmers seem to allow for names with trailers. Many computer-generated letters are addressed correctly, then start out "Dear Mr. III". Even the ones which allow for any number of name segments outsmart themselves by assuming that only the first character of a string should be capitalized, so "III" turns into "Iii". Bank and government systems, whose owners aren't trying to be polite, often address things to "III, Wm. E. Brown". I can often track who sells mailing lists to whom by the patterns of error propagation. The best one, however, came last month when I bought a used car. The dealer's system which types out nineteen different and complex forms from one set of input data simply decided that the last group of letters had to be my last name, and that everyone has two initials plus one name. Now I have an extended protection policy from Ford, complete with an embossed plastic card, in the name of "W E III".
After reading on RISKS about danger to credit cards from magnetic clasps on purses, I asked my wife if she owns such a purse; fortunately, she does not. However, in the course of the discussion it occurred to us that she sometimes carries floppy disks in her purse. Now that seems to me like a real RISK possibility. With bad luck the card could be within 0.25 inch or so of the magnet and in continuous movement with respect to it as the purse is carried. Art Evans/Tartan Labs
In some discussions around here about the recent virus articles in comp.risks, someone raised the idea of the inevitability of viruses that target specific software products. Unlike the current run of viruses which seem to be either fairly innocuous or generally destructive, this type of virus would be designed to quietly alter some particular (probably commercial) software with the intent of making it look faulty or buggy. For example, a virus of this type might be designed to attack a Brand X spreadsheet, to cause it to perform some computations incorrectly. The effect might not show up immediately, but would certainly eventually leave the user with a poor opinion of the program, which might not go away even after the existence of the virus became known and the problem fixed (after all, this software would now be known to be vulnerable and targeted). The economic cost to the spreadsheet vendor could be considerable. One motivation for writing such a virus comes immediately to mind. This is the disgruntled employee, the same legendary figure who leaves time-bombs in employers' code. (Have any instances of this ever been successfully prosecuted?). This would be harder to prove than the time-bomb: the (source) code is not left in the employer's hands. One of the more insidious aspects of this kind of virus is that it can do its job and go away (erasing itself once its mission is accomplished), leaving no hint that the targeted utility has been damaged nor that a virus was responsible. The blame for the induced problem will naturally fall on the author of the utility, especially when it shows up "all over". (What laws and penalties would apply against the author of such a virus?)
A few years ago, while I was in high school, I read a short desciption of what a virus was, and decided to write my own. It was short, (<500 lines source code) and VERY contagious to a dos 3.3 disk. Since it was a challenge and not a malicous attempt to destroy data, when it triggered, all it said was "BOO". After a while I started wondering what use it could be, besides the destruction of data. One of the things I came upon, was that it could be used to get information out of a secure system. For example, let's take 3 sample computer systems: A, B, and C. Someone at A has a file that C wants. B is a computer system that exchanges software, with both A and C. (B could also be a few computer systems, that exchange software among themselves, and form a link from A to C.) C introduces a virus to B's system, with the hope that it will get to A's system. All this virus does is check the date, and scan for a character string. When a given character string is located, it either opens up a communication channel to A, and dumps all relevant information, or it appends a certain amount of the information to itself, and subtly changes itself: it is now an outbound virus, and will only transfer the information to an already infected system. Thus eventually, the information will slowly come back to A. If a copy of the "inbound" virus finds that the date is greater than a certain day, it decides that it is on a dead end, and just erases itself. If a group of programmers, sat down, and came up with such a "smart" virus, the implications could be staggering. Larry Nathanson Boston Univ. CS Dept. firstname.lastname@example.org
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